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Personal and Organisational Effectiveness Below are all the courses currently available, select one for more details:. Project Management. Project Management Below are all the courses currently available, select one for more details:. Strategy Below are all the courses currently available, select one for more details:. Supply Chain. That word comes from the Old High German , brinnan and Old English byrnan , biernan , and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Later the firebrands were replaced with branding irons.

Through that association, the term eventually acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding probably began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2, BCE. Branding was adapted by farmers, potters and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics. Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa, Asia and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions.

Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection, utility and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions". Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a largely pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of origin and even the identity of the producer, which were understood to convey information about product quality.

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These ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality-control over commodities, and also needed to convey value to the consumer through branding. Producers began by attaching simple stone seals to products which, over time, gave way to clay seals bearing impressed images, often associated with the producer's personal identity thus giving the product a personality. Scholarly studies have found evidence of branding, packaging and labelling in antiquity.

Stamps were used on bricks, pottery, and storage containers as well as on fine ceramics. For example, 3rd-century Gaulish pots bearing the names of well-known potters and the place of manufacture such as Attianus of Lezoux, Tetturo of Lezoux and Cinnamus of Vichy have been found as far away as Essex and Hadrian's Wall in England. A series of five marks occurs on Byzantine silver dating from this period.

Some of the earliest use of maker's marks, dating to about 1, BCE, have been found in India. Details in the image show a white rabbit crushing herbs, and text includes advice to shoppers to look for the stone white rabbit in front of the maker's shop. In ancient Rome , a commercial brand or inscription applied to objects offered for sale was known as a titulus pictus.

The inscription typically specified information such as place of origin, destination, type of product and occasionally quality claims or the name of the manufacturer. One merchant who made good use of the titulus pictus was Umbricius Scaurus, a manufacturer of fish sauce also known as garum in Pompeii, circa 35 CE. Mosaic patterns in the atrium of his house feature images of amphorae bearing his personal brand and quality claims.

The mosaic depicts four different amphora, one at each corner of the atrium, and bearing labels as follows: [39]. Scaurus' fish sauce was known by people across the Mediterranean to be of very high quality, and its reputation travelled as far away as modern France. Wine jars, for example, were stamped with names, such as "Lassius" and "L. Eumachius"; probably references to the name of the producer. The use of identity marks on products declined following the fall of the Roman Empire. However, in the European Middle Ages, heraldry developed a language of visual symbolism which would feed into the evolution of branding, [40] and with the rise of the merchant 's guilds the use of marks resurfaced and was applied to specific types of goods.

By the 13th century the use of maker's marks had become evident on a broad range of goods. In makers' marks on bread became compulsory in England. Hallmarks, although known from the 4th-century, especially in Byzantium, [43] only came into general use during the Medieval period. Some brands still in existence as of [update] date from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries' period of mass-production. Many years before Bass applied a red triangle to casks of its Pale Ale. In its red-triangle brand became the first registered trademark issued by the British government.

A characteristic feature of 19th-century mass-marketing was the widespread use of branding, originating with the advent of packaged goods. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or company insignia on the barrels used, effectively using a corporate trademark as a quasi-brand. Factories established following the Industrial Revolution introduced mass-produced goods and needed to sell their products to a wider market — that is, to customers previously familiar only with locally produced goods.

Packaged-goods manufacturers needed to convince the market that the public could place just as much trust in the non-local product. Gradually, manufacturers began using personal identifiers to differentiate their goods from generic products on the market. Marketers generally began to realise that brands, to which personalities were attached, outsold rival brands. This began the modern practice now known as branding , where the consumers buy the brand instead of the product and rely on the brand name instead of a retailer's recommendation. The process of giving a brand "human" characteristics represented, at least in part, a response to consumer concerns about mass-produced goods.

Other brands which date from that era, such as Uncle Ben's rice and Kellogg's breakfast cereal, furnish illustrations of the trend. By the early s, trade-press publications, advertising agencies and advertising experts began producing books and pamphlets exhorting manufacturers to bypass retailers and to advertise direct to consumers with strongly branded messages. Around , advertising guru James Walter Thompson published a house advertisement explaining trademark advertising. This was an early commercial explanation of what scholars now recognize as modern branding and the beginnings of brand management.

Business analysts reported that what they really purchased was the brand name. With the rise of mass media in the early 20th century, companies soon adopted techniques that would allow their messages to stand out; slogans , mascots , and jingles began to appear on radio in the s and in early television broadcasting in the s. Soap manufacturers sponsored many of the earliest radio-drama series, and the genre became known as soap opera.

Effective branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but of other products associated with that brand. Brand development, often the task of a design team , takes time to produce. A brand name is the part of a brand that can be spoken or written and identifies a product, service or company and sets it apart from other comparable products within a category.

A brand name may include words, phrases, signs, symbols, designs, or any combination of these elements. For consumers, a brand name is a "memory heuristic"; a convenient way to remember preferred product choices. A brand name is not to be confused with a trademark which refers to the brand name or part of a brand that is legally protected. Simply, the brand identity is a set of individual components, such as a name, a design, a set of images, a slogan, a vision, a design, writing style, a particular font or a symbol etc.

A brand's attributes are a set of labels with which the corporation wishes to be associated. For example, a brand may showcase its primary attribute as environmental friendliness. However, a brand's attributes alone are not enough to persuade a customer into purchasing the product. If a brand's attribute is being environmentally friendly, customers will receive the benefit of feeling that they are helping the environment by associating with the brand.

Aside from attributes and benefits, a brand's identity may also involve branding to focus on representing its core set of values. Even more extensive than its perceived values is a brand's personality. Aaker conceptualised brand personality as consisting of five broad dimensions, namely: sincerity down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, and cheerful , excitement daring, spirited, imaginative, and up to date , competence reliable, intelligent, and successful , sophistication glamorous, upper class, charming , and ruggedness outdoorsy and tough.

Much of the literature on branding suggests that consumers prefer brands with personalities that are congruent with their own. Consumers may distinguish the psychological aspect brand associations like thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is termed the consumer's brand experience. The brand is often intended to create an emotional response and recognition, leading to potential loyalty and repeat purchases.

The brand experience is a brand's action perceived by a person. Marketers or product managers responsible for branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. Orientation of an entire organization towards its brand is called brand orientation.

Brand orientation develops in response to market intelligence. Careful brand management seeks to make products or services relevant and meaningful to a target audience. Marketers tend to treat brands as more than the difference between the actual cost of a product and its selling price; rather brands represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer and are often treated as the total investment in brand building activities including marketing communications.

Consumers may look on branding as an aspect of products or services, [ citation needed ] as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic see also brand promise. From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services can command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding such as a generic , store-branded product , potential purchasers may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the perceived quality of the brand or on the basis of the reputation of the brand owner.

Brands helps customers to understand which brands or products belong to which product or service category. Thus, the brand offers the customer a short-cut to understanding the different product or service offerings that make up a particular category. Brand awareness is a key step in the customer's purchase decision process, since some kind of awareness is a precondition to purchasing. That is, customers will not consider a brand if they are not aware of it. Each form reflects a different stage in a customer's cognitive ability to address the brand in a given circumstance.

Marketers typically identify two distinct types of brand awareness; namely brand recall also known as unaided recall or occasionally spontaneous recall and brand recognition also known as aided brand recall. Brand recognition is one of the initial phases of brand awareness and validates whether or not a customer remembers being pre-exposed to the brand. This does not necessarily require that the consumers identify or recall the brand name. When customers experience brand recognition, they are triggered by either a visual or verbal cue.

When given some type of cue, consumers who are able to retrieve the particular memory node that referred to the brand, they exhibit brand recognition. Brand recognition is often the mode of brand awareness that operates in retail shopping environments. When presented with a product at the point-of-sale, or after viewing its visual packaging, consumers are able to recognize the brand and may be able to associate it with attributes or meanings acquired through exposure to promotion or word-of-mouth referrals. Brand recognition is most successful when people can elicit recognition without being explicitly exposed to the company's name, but rather through visual signifiers like logos, slogans, and colors.

Unlike brand recognition, brand recall also known as unaided brand recall or spontaneous brand recall is the ability of the customer retrieving the brand correctly from memory. This level of brand awareness is stronger than brand recognition, as the brand must be firmly cemented in the consumer's memory to enable unassisted remembrance.

Thus, brand recall is a confirmation that previous branding touchpoints have successfully fermented in the minds of its consumers.

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Marketing-mix modeling can help marketing leaders optimize how they spend marketing budgets to maximize the impact on brand awareness or on sales. Managing brands for value creation will often involve applying marketing-mix modeling techniques in conjunction with brand valuation. Brands typically comprise various elements, such as: [79].

Although brand identity is a fundamental asset to a brand's equity , the worth of a brand's identity would become obsolete without ongoing brand communication. The effectiveness of a brand's communication is determined by how accurately the customer perceives the brand's intended message through its IMC. Although IMC is a broad strategic concept, the most crucial brand communication elements are pinpointed [ by whom? One can analyse the traditional communication model into several consecutive steps: [63].

When a brand communicates a brand identity to a receiver, it runs the risk of the receiver incorrectly interpreting the message. Therefore, a brand should use appropriate communication channels to positively "…affect how the psychological and physical aspects of a brand are perceived". In order for brands to effectively communicate to customers, marketers must "…consider all touch point s, or sources of contact, that a customer has with the brand".

Any point where a customer has an interaction with the brand - whether watching a television advertisement, hearing about a brand through word of mouth, or even noticing a branded license plate — defines a touch point. According to Dahlen et al. One methodology involves using sensory stimuli touch points to activate customer emotion. For example, a brand may recognize that advertising touch points are most effective during the pre-purchase experience stage therefore they may target their advertisements to new customers rather than to existing customers.

Overall, a brand has the ability to strengthen brand equity by using IMC branding communications through touch points.

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Brand communication is important in ensuring brand success in the business world and refers to how businesses transmit their brand messages, characteristics and attributes to their consumers. EWoM is a relatively new [ when? Research further found that the more consumers "retweeted" and communicated with a brand, the more they trusted the brand. This suggests that a company could look to employ a social-media campaign to gain consumer trust and loyalty as well as in the pursuit of communicating brand messages.

McKee also looked into brand communication and states that when communicating a brand, a company should look to simplify its message as this will lead to more value being portrayed as well as an increased chance of target consumers recalling and recognizing the brand. In Riefler stated that if the company communicating a brand is a global organisation or has future global aims, that company should look to employ a method of communication which is globally appealing to their consumers, and subsequently choose a method of communication with will be internationally understood.

It is important that if a company wishes to develop a global market, the company name will also need to be suitable in different cultures and not cause offense or be misunderstood. Therefore, when looking to communicate a brand with chosen consumers, companies should investigate a channel of communication which is most suitable for their short-term and long-term aims and should choose a method of communication which is most likely to be adhered to [ clarification needed ] by their chosen consumers.

The term "brand name" is quite often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of any product. In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark , if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration — such trademarks are called "Registered Trademarks".

Advertising spokespersons have also become part of some brands, for example: Mr. Putting a value on a brand by brand valuation or using marketing mix modeling techniques is distinct to valuing a trademark. Brand names come in many styles. The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt to designer jeans.

A brandnomer is a brand name that has colloquially become a generic term for a product or service, such as Band-Aid , Nylon , or Kleenex —which are often used to describe any brand of adhesive bandage; any type of hosiery; or any brand of facial tissue respectively. Xerox , for example, has become synonymous with the word "copy". A brand line allows the introduction of various subtypes of a product under a common, ideally already established, brand name. See also brand extension. The outward expression of a brand — including its name, trademark, communications, and visual appearance — is brand identity.

This is in contrast to the brand image, which is a customer's mental picture of a brand. Brand identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors. Brand identity is what the owner wants to communicate to its potential consumers. However, over time, a product's brand identity may acquire evolve , gaining new attributes from consumer perspective but not necessarily from the marketing communications an owner percolates to targeted consumers.

Therefore, businesses research consumer's brand associations. A brand can also be used to attract customers by a company, if the brand of a company is well established and has goodwill. The recognition and perception of a brand is highly influenced by its visual presentation. A brand's visual identity is the overall look of its communications. Effective visual brand identity is achieved by the consistent use of particular visual elements to create distinction, such as specific fonts, colors, and graphic elements. At the core of every brand identity is a brand mark, or logo. In the United States, brand identity and logo design naturally grew out of the Modernist movement in the s and greatly drew on the principles of that movement — simplicity Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 's principle of "Less is more" and geometric abstraction.

These principles can be observed in the work of the pioneers of the practice of visual brand identity design, such as Paul Rand and Saul Bass. As part of a company's brand identity, a logo should complement the company's message strategy. An effective logo is simple, memorable, and works well in any medium including both online and offline applications.

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Color is a particularly important element of visual brand identity and color mapping provides an effective way of ensuring color contributes to differentiation in a visually cluttered marketplace. Brand trust is the intrinsic 'believability' that any entity evokes. In the commercial world, the intangible aspect of brand trust impacts the behavior and performance of its business stakeholders in many intriguing ways.

It creates the foundation of a strong brand connect with all stakeholders, converting simple awareness to strong commitment. Brand trust is often used as an important part of developing the portrayal of the business globally. Foreign companies will often use names that are associated with quality, in order to entrust the brand itself. An example would be a Chinese company using a German name. The Brand Trust Report is a syndicated primary research that has elaborated on this metric of brand trust.


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It is a result of action, behavior, communication and attitude of an entity, with the most trust results emerging from its action component. Action of the entity is most important in creating trust in all those audiences who directly engage with the brand, the primary experience carrying primary audiences.

However, the tools of communications play a vital role in the transferring the trust experience to audiences which have never experienced the brand, the all-important secondary audience. Brand parity is the perception of the customers that some brands are equivalent. When brand parity operates, quality is often not a major concern because consumers believe that only minor quality differences exist.

The original aim of branding was to simplify the process of identifying and differentiating products. Over time, manufacturers began to use branded messages to give the brand a unique personality. Brands came to embrace a performance or benefit promise, for the product, certainly, but eventually also for the company behind the brand. Today, brands play a much bigger role.

The power of brands to communicate a complex message quickly, with emotional impact and with the ability of brands to attract media attention, makes them ideal tools in the hands of activists. Often, especially in the industrial sector, brand engineers will promote a company's name. Exactly how the company name relates to product and services names forms part of a brand architecture.

Decisions about company names and product names and their relationship depend on more than a dozen strategic considerations. Corporate name-changes offer particularly stark examples of branding-related decisions. A change in corporate naming may also have a role in seeking to shed an undesirable image: for example, Werner Erhard and Associates re-branded its activities as Landmark Education in at a time when publicity in a 60 Minutes investigative-report broadcast cast the est and Werner Erhard brands in a negative light, [] and Union Carbide India Limited became Eveready Industries India in subsequent to the Bhopal disaster of A challenger brand is a brand in an industry where it is neither the market leader nor a niche brand.

Challenger brands are categorised by a mindset which sees them have business ambitions beyond conventional resources and an intent to bring change to an industry. Multiproduct branding strategy is when a company uses one name across all their products in a product class. When the company's trade name is used, multiproduct branding is also known as corporate branding, family branding or umbrella branding.

Examples of companies that use corporate branding are Microsoft , Samsung , Apple , and Sony as the company's brand name is identical to their trade name. Virgin, a multination conglomerate uses the punk inspired, handwritten red logo with the iconic tick for all its products ranging from airlines, hot air balloons, telecommunication to healthcare. Multiproduct branding strategy has many advantages. It capitalises on brand equity as consumers that have a good experience with the product will in turn pass on this positive opinion to supplementary objects in the same product class as they share the same name.

Consequently, the multiproduct branding strategy makes product line extension possible. Product line extension is the procedure of entering a new market segment in its product class by means of using a current brand name. An example of this is the Campbell Soup Company , primarily a producer of canned soups. They utilize a multiproduct branding strategy by way of soup line extensions. They have over soup flavours putting forward varieties such as regular Campbell soup, condensed, chunky, fresh-brewed, organic, and soup on the go.

This approach is seen as favourable as it can result in a lower promotion costs and advertising due to the same name being used on all products, therefore increasing the level of brand awareness. Although, line extension has potential negative outcomes with one being that other items in the company's line may be disadvantaged because of the sale of the extension. Line extensions work at their best when they deliver an increase in company revenue by enticing new buyers or by removing sales from competitors. Subbranding is used by certain multiproduct branding companies.

Subbranding merges a corporate, family or umbrella brand with the introduction of a new brand in order to differentiate part of a product line from others in the whole brand system. Subbranding assists to articulate and construct offerings. It can alter a brand's identity as subbranding can modify associations of the parent brand. Examples of successful subbranding can be seen through Gatorade and Porsche. Gatorade, a manufacturer of sport-themed food and beverages effectively introduced Gatorade G2, a low-calorie line of Gatorade drinks. Likewise, Porsche, a specialised automobile manufacturer successfully markets its lower-end line, Porsche Boxster and higher-end line, Porsche Carrera.

Brand extension is the system of employing a current brand name to enter a different product class. Having a strong brand equity allows for brand extension. Nevertheless, brand extension has its disadvantages. There is a risk that too many uses for one brand name can oversaturate the market resulting in a blurred and weak brand for consumers. Examples of brand extension can be seen through Kimberly-Clark and Honda. Kimberly-Clark is a corporation that produces personal and health care products being able to extend the Huggies brand name across a full line of toiletries for toddlers and babies.

Similarly, Honda using their reputable name for automobiles has spread to other products such as motorcycles, power equipment, engines, robots, aircraft, and bikes. Co-branding is a variation of brand extension. It is where a single product is created from the combining of two brand names of two manufacturers. Co-branding has its advantages as it lets firms enter new product classes and exploit a recognized brand name in that product class. This product was a huge success in the New Zealand market with it going viral.

Multibranding strategy is when a company gives each product a distinct name. Multibranding is best used as an approach when each brand in intended for a different market segment. Multibranding is used in an assortment of ways with selected companies grouping their brands based on price-quality segments. This approach usually results in higher promotion costs and advertising.

This is due to the company being required to generate awareness among consumers and retailers for each new brand name without the benefit of any previous impressions. Multibranding strategy has many advantages. There is no risk that a product failure will affect other products in the line as each brand is unique to each market segment.

Although, certain large multiband companies have come across that the cost and difficulty of implementing a multibranding strategy can overshadow the benefits. For example, Unilever , the world's third-largest multination consumer goods company recently streamlined its brands from over brands to centre their attention onto 14 brands with sales of over 1 billion euros. Unilever accomplished this through product deletion and sales to other companies. Other multibrand companies introduce new product brands as a protective measure to respond to competition called fighting brands or fighter brands.

The main purpose of fighting brands is to challenge competitor brands. For example, Qantas , Australia's largest flag carrier airline, introduced Jetstar to go head-to-head against the low-cost carrier, Virgin Australia formerly known as Virgin Blue. Jetstar is an Australian low-cost airline for budget conscious travellers, but it receives many negative reviews due to this. The launching of Jetstar allowed Qantas to rival Virgin Australia without the criticism being affiliated with Qantas because of the distinct brand name. Private branding also known as reseller branding, private labelling, store brands, or own brands have increased in popularity.

Private branding is when a company manufactures products but it is sold under the brand name of a wholesaler or retailer. Private branding is popular because it typically produces high profits for manufacturers and resellers. The pricing of private brand product are usually cheaper compared to competing name brands. Consumers are commonly deterred by these prices as it sets a perception of lower quality and standard but these views are shifting.

In Australia, their leading supermarket chains, both Woolworths and Coles are saturated with store brands or private labels. For example, in the United States, Paragon Trade Brands, Ralcorp Holdings , and Rayovac are major suppliers of diapers, grocery products, and private label alkaline batteries, correspondingly. Costco , Walmart , RadioShack , Sears , and Kroger are large retailers that have their own brand names.

Similarly, Macy's , a mid-range chain of department stores offers a wide catalogue of private brands exclusive to their stores, from brands such as First Impressions which supply newborn and infant clothing, Hotel Collection which supply luxury linens and mattresses, and Tasso Elba which supply European inspired menswear.

They use private branding strategy to specifically target consumer markets. Mixed branding strategy is where a firm markets products under its own name s and that of a reseller because the segment attracted to the reseller is different from its own market. For example, Elizabeth Arden, Inc.