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My friend, I want to ask you Ask, lady, because Id like you to. You must not hide anything from me. Never, lady, will I hide anything. Why do you make so many songs? Lady, because I never forget you. I want to ask you, in good faith Ask, because Id be delighted. If thats so, dont hide anything from me. Ill never hide anything, my lady.

Dont be upset at what Im going to ask. No, lady, rather Ill be grateful. And dont hide from me what I want to know. Never, lady, will I hide anything from you. And this favor, its for me that you do it? For you, my lady, because you deserve it. Par Deus, amigo, non sei eu que , mais muit ja que vos vejo partir de trobar por mi e de me servir, mais a destas , per ba fe: ou per mi, que vos non fao ben, 5 ou sinal de morte que vos ven.

Mui gran temp , e tenho que mal, que vos non o ja cantar fazer nen loar mi nen meu bon parecer, mais a destas , u non jaz al: 10 ou per mi, que vos non fao ben, ou sinal de morte que vos ven. Ja m eu do tempo acordar non sei que vos osse fazer un cantar, como soades, por me loar, 15 mais a destas que vos direi: ou per mi, que vos non fao ben, ou sinal de morte que vos ven.

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Se per mi, que vos non fao ben, dizede mho, e ja que farei n. By God, friend, I dont know what it is, But its been a long time since you stopped Composing for me and serving me, And it must be one of these two things: Either its cause of methat I dont do you favors Or its a sign of death, which is approaching. Its been a long time, and I think its bad, That I havent heard you make a song Or sing my praise or my good looks, But it must be one of these two things, no doubt: Either its cause of methat I dont do you favors Or its a sign of death, which is approaching.

I can no longer even remember When I heard you make a song, As you used to, in praise of me, But its one of these two things Im saying: Either its cause of methat I dont do you favors Or its a sign of death, which is approaching.

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If its because of methat I dont do you favors Just tell me so, and Ill do something or other. Vs que vos en vossos cantares meu amigo chamades, creede ben que non dou eu por tal enfinta ren, e por aquesto, senhor, vos mand eu que, ben quanto quiserdes des aqui 5 fazer, faades enfinta de mi. Ca demo lev essa ren que eu der por enfinta fazer o mentiral de min, ca me non monta ben nen mal, e por aquesto vos mand eu, senher, 10 que, ben quanto quiserdes des aqui fazer, faades enfinta de mi.

Ca mi non tolh a mi ren nen mi d de s enfinger de mi mui sen razon ao que eu nunca fiz se mal non, 15 e por en, senhor, vos mand ora ja que, ben quanto quiserdes des aqui fazer, faades enfinta de mi. E estade com estades de mi, e enfingede vos ben des aqui. You, who in your songs call yourself My friend, you had better believe That I dont care at all about such a boast, And therefore, sir, I order you From now on, just as much as you want To boast about me, go ahead and boast. It does nothing for me, one way or the other, That someone whom I have only disliked Should boast about me without any reason, And therefore, sir, I order you right now: From now on, just as much as you want To boast about me, go ahead and boast.

Keep on being just what you are to me, And from now on boast as well as you can. The only words that do not come directly from Latin are aduffe Andalusi Arabic , entenar, entenon Provenal from Latin , lirias ultimately from Greek , trobador, trobar Provenal from Greek. See Cohen, Etymological Wordlist. By metapoetics I mean poetry about poetry. I will not discuss the pastorelas: however closely they may be related in certain respects, they do not belong to this genre.

But first let us ask: How many times does a girl sing, and how many times does a boy? All told, six texts. In Giinzo 8, it is likely that the aduffe is played by a girl. In all other texts it is a boy or boys doing or not doing the composing and singing. In Torneol 1 and Esquio 4 birds are said to sing, but in the former the song attributed to them is female-voiced love lyric, something much like a cantiga damigo. How do we interpret these facts?

Do theyeven indirectlyreflect social reality? Or are they mere poetic fiction? Do poets handle singing differently depending on their own social condition, or the venue for which they compose and where they perform? Estevan Coelho, a late poet, provides the only explicit example of a girl singing. Pindar regularly refers to song; see especially the opening of the first Pythian Ode. Lang in finally translated into Portuguese; see Lang, Cancioneiro, made the first inventory of technical terms in the texts themselves.

In songs mocking allegedly incompetent poets we can verify that external responsion was the fundamental principle of strophic composition in Galician- Portuguese lyric Cohen, Cantar Igual. Incomparably more information about songs, singing, music, and so on, can be found in the cantigas d escarnho e mal dizer and the cantigas de Santa Maria both text and art , but that evidence cannot be handled here.

In the other texts where girls are represented as singing or not singing we just do not know genre of song is meant. What do these singers, male and female, sing and why? What response do they expect of the audience, or of the person for whom they sing, if there is one? What reactions do they get from their songs? And what happens if they decline to sing?

To try to answer these and other questions, I will comment on the texts one by one. A full commentary is beyond my scope here. I will limit myself to discussing those aspects of each song that are relevant to the questions at hand and making some final remarks.

Pae Soarez de Taveirs 2. Here we see that fazer cantar means to compose, and we learn that both chamar-me senhor call me [his] lady and enmentar-me mention me by name are speech-actions Bing and Cohen, performed in the song vv. The result is that the audience knows the boy loves the girl: saberen que mi quer gran bem refrain and this makes her angry que mi fez pesar; v.

She has good reason to complain: vedes ora se me dev a queixar v. Here queixar-se like aver queixume elsewhere, e. These actions are sequential: he sings; in his song he names her; they learn a secret; she gets angry and threatens to end the fala or wooing Cohen, Poetics of Peace, ; Erotic Angles, We learn something about how song functions, what it contains and reveals, how the audience reacts, and how the girl reacts to that reaction. Thus this text one of the earliest for which we have even an approximate date provides information about the composition and reception of song, and about the reaction of the person for whom the song was composed an implied threat.

Song performs actions within the utterance it articulates, and the performance of a song functions within a society and can affect relationships. Song both represents social praxis and is social praxis. There is action inside it, and action around it. This cantiga is similar in form to an Andalusi Arabic zajal, where often a two-verse refrain rhyming AA precedes strophes of the form bbba, which are then followed by repetitions of the refrain, thus: AA bbba AA, and so on Federico Corriente, personal communication, Here the refrain consists of a single line, so the initial distich has one variable verse: aA.

This is followed by strophes of the shape bbbA, hence: aA bbbA. Similar forms number about half a dozen in the secular lyric, though they are common in the cantigas de Santa Maria. That this kind of form, unique in this genre, should be utilized in a song about singing may not be coincidental. Nuno Fernandez Torneol 1.

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The interpretation of this cantiga, beginning with its cool mornings, is hotly disputed see Cohen, Wake Up, Traitor;From Folksong to Lyric Theater, My reading of the problematic opening strophes especially I. But birds could not have been singing Levad, amigo, etc. Lapa Das Origens, thinks I. The song the girl says the birds used to sing is the key to interpreting this enigmatic text. By repeating the words of that song, in which a girl tells a sleeping boy to wake up, the girl is reminding the boy of the days when they were together, and so implicitly asking. It can be argued Cohen, Wake Up, Traitor that the refrain is also part of that song the birds sang.

If that is so, there is no contradiction between what the girl says as the poem progresses and what the birds said then this alleged contradiction has long proved problematic for critics. We have a song within a song, beginning in I. Here the citation, within a song, of the words of another song functions as an attempt to make peace see Cohen, Poetics of Peace. Finally, in addition to the unusual structure of the verses, with a precise inner colon boundary unmarked by rhyme; Cohen, Colometry , and a highly unusual metrical difference in I.

This is one of a very few cantigas d amigo with eight strophes cf. Solaz 2, Charinho 1, Dinis 16, 40 the maximum number found in the genre. And it displays what is called perfect parallelism with a continuous leixa-pren. Estevan Coelho 1. The girl is singing cantigas d amigo while she does her weaving chores: she must be in love.

This inference is confirmed in the fiinda, through irony. Here dizer means cantar, an archaic usage. Already in Latin dicere means to sing attested from the Augustan period and is equivalent to canere. Here, the last word of the body of the strophe and the the whole of the refrain, privileged positions in the form, feature song-words. Since we know that this rhyme-pair is earlier than Coelho and he is imitating older compositional procedures, even without further evidence it would not be unreasonable to infer that the.

See LIV. But we need not infer.

We know Johan Baveca, composing decades before, puts the name of the genre, cantigas d amigo, in a refrain. Several late poets King Dinis among them imitate forms, rhetoric and pragmatics that we know is old or even archaic voz manselinha, found in Loureno 2, v. The later poet repeats a phrase that appears roughly half a century before he composed his cantiga. And the phonological archaism sedia, with intervocalic -d- preserved in the incipit, is another mark of his archaizing.

These features provide evidence for what the poet himself took to be traditional poetics. The aaB form itself had long fallen out of fashion at court, yet Estevan Coelho, like King Dinis, revives a strophic form that he knew belonged to the matrix of the genre Cohen, In the Beginning. Johan Garcia de Guilhade This text contains a poetics in miniature Cohen, Dana Jurdica, , with technical terms: cantar song , son melody , enfinta poetic-erotic boast , razon argument of a poem , como foi feito design , por quen foi feito addressee.

If en cima da razon means at the end of the argument, we can take cima da razon as a term equivalent to the conclusion of the discourse. What the girl appears to be saying is this: When the logic of the utterance had reached its end, [I understood that] I was the one for whom it was made. This presupposes that the audience, or any listener, must wait until the razon is finished to be able to draw certain inferences. Only when form, syntax, rhetoric and pragmatics have been fully articulated and the cantiga has ended, is it possible to grasp the song as a whole, to know how it is constructed, what main speech-action is articulated, andin the case of Guilhade 19for whom the song is meant.

It is not clear what the girl means when she says that the song is guardado mui ben v. One possible gloss is carefuly constructed; another is well defended, in the sense that the song effectively protects or guards something perhaps a secret. Passages in the cantigas de Santa Maria show, however, that the verb guardar can mean to observe, as in observe the laws of a religion, or observe the commandment regarding the Sabbath CSM So the expression guardado mui ben, said of a song, could mean that the rules of composition have been carefully observed by the poet.

If this is so, what rules would those be? Rules of form, such as the principle of external responsion Cohen, Cantar Igual , the design of a rhyme-scheme, the choice of rhyme-sounds; rules of rhetoric, like those regarding repetition with variation, and the careful placement of key words and phrases; and rules about the articulation of action and intention, which are not fully revealed until the composition has reached a conclusion en cima da razon.

Songs About Singing: A Metapoetics of the Cantigas d Amigo

The girl tells us that this is a song sen enfinta v. It was evidently the principal move Cohen, Speech-Acts and Sprachspiele in a certain kind of song cf. Dinis 9, vv. And what about the theft of song? The girl understands who it is for. It is not for the other woman, who wants to steal it for herself. Is not stealing a songclaiming that it is dedicated to ones self when it is notan aspect of song that we should take into account, if we are to describe all phenomena relating to the practice of singing in the society represented?

What in the song allows her to know or infer this? In the case of Guilhade 19, the question may be difficult to answer Cohen, Dana Jurdica, , From Folksong, If the 22 cantigas in the Amigo section of BV 9 being a cantiga d amor, but rhetorically much in the style of a cantiga d amigo are one coherent composition, it could be that the girl means she understands to whom the whole sequence is dedicated: to her, not to another. Another woman is mentioned in several poems 7, 8, 9, 22 in Guilhades sequence of 22 songs, and it may be she who is praised in Guilhade 9, where a male speaker is stunned by the beauty of a moa que x agora chegou, a girl who just arrived.

Which of the two girls that play a role in the sequence is speaking in this song? We cannot knowunless a clue lies in the acrostic ZION in the final letters in the right-hand margin, in the center of the text, reading down or up the page, vv. Beyond the action represented in the song by speech that one persona addresses to another, there is also communication between the poet his audience, and between the poet and an intended recipient.

These are three different communicative acts. And there can be no communication without comprehension. Here, and also in Sevilha 7 and 11, entender means to understand a song. So we should include entender in that sense as referring to a key part of reception. And since the girl says in the refrain e o cantar valrria a vez and the song would be worth something for once , we should also include the assessment of worth valer as part of the social phenomenon of song. The thrust of this utterance is: Praise is out of fashion vv.

Fiinda: Those who do not praise women as they ought to be praised deserve to die a painful death. Here, dizer ben de v. To praise is a technical term of song because the rhetoric of praise is sung, not merely spoken. In the first two verses, perdud an conhecer appears to mean that the trobadores have lost their poetic know-how. They do not speak of love in their songs v. Worse yet, they no longer compose songs of praise vv.

Composition is based on knowledge conhecer , and a distinction is implicitly drawn between erotic song in general and songs of praise. Within love poetry, different actions are represented, and praise is one of them. In this song cantar does not appear. Dizer, in the sense to sing, occurs twice v. The key words related to song are trobadores 2, 10 and forms of trobar 12, The last verse of the second strophe contains both verb and substantive, ending with the word trobador in a doubly marked position: end of verse and strophe.

After that there is no lexical mention of singing. The words used reflect the social status and aspirations of the. This comic declaration is not found in a simple strophe like aaB and kindred forms, but in a cantiga de maestria with three strophes of abbacca plus a three-verse fiinda. Form and rhetoric correspond to social factors. Vasco Perez Pardal 5. Non fazer cantar not to compose a song impliesby a widespread conventionnot to be in love. She thinks he must be dead, since he has not sent a message or a song: Now, normally it is the boys tarrying and failure to communicate that upsets the girl, and here he is also tarrying too long and incommunicato, but the emphasis is on his failure to sing.

We can take or cantar as referring to the reception of song, which is not just implied by the text, but referred to openly and emphatically. In this case, not hearing songs composed by the boy is significant to the girl. The girls concern not with his excessive delay, nor with the chance that he might be with another girl Cohen, Erotic Angles, 61, , but with the dearth of songs may be an inside joke among the trobadores, a playful variation on a well-known script Cohen and Parkinson, , This is one of only two cantigas d amigo where masculine and feminine rhymes are mixed in both the body of the strophe and the refrain the other is Roi Fernandiz 5; Cohen, Cantigas, 44 and n3.

So this song about singing employs unusual technical virtuosity that reenforces the theme. The poet appears to want to demonstrate how good the songs he is not singing are or would be. Afonso Sanchez 1: This poem, of a single strophe, may be a fragment. At any rate, the girl is waiting with her girlfriend for the boy to arrive. When he does, the girlfriend should talk about various donzelas young ladies and both will try to discern if he is still true to the donzela for whom he always sang the speaker. Is there real erotic and. The relationship between what a poet says to or about a woman in a song and what he feels in his heart is important to the girl.

She is comparing art with life and wants to know if the former corresponds to the latter. Trobou, the only reference to singing, is the last word of the strophe, thus occurring in a privileged position within the form, even if the text is fragmentary. Pedr Eanes Solaz 2. In form, language and pragmatics this is the most difficult poem in the corpus of cantigas d amigo, and had long been misunderstood by scholars, partly because of the Andalusi Arabic elements and a bilingual verse with a code-shift from archaic Iberian Romance to Andalusi Arabic , partly because it forms a mini- sequence with Solaz 1, which had also been misunderstood Cohen and Corriente.

In the opening four strophes the girl waits for her beloved, who is coming. As he comes, he sings well of love: d amor tan ben dizia III. This skill at singing of love makes the boy appealing as he arrives for a reconciliation, even if the girl wants him back anyway. And this is not the only reference to singing in the text.

Dizer leli VII. Boasting about an erotic experience is a kind of speech-action represented in poetry since antiquity e. The sense of demo x quen non diz leli v. Formally, this song is unique Cohen, Poetics of Peace, Three different actions correspond to three sections with distinct formal features. And strophes VII-VIII, instead of any rhyme assonant or perfect , present a unique local dobre on the word leli, used at the end of each of the four verses outside the refrain. Pragmatically, there are three sequential actions. The girls narration of the imminent arrival of the boy who sings so well of love I-IV functions as prelude to her.

In its language, the poem is also unique. Although there are a few loan-words from Andalusi Arabic in the lexicon of the cantigas d amigo e. The phrase lya ddwra may be only two words long, but it is a phrase in Arabic. And leli is an common exclamation in the poetry of that language, not a loan-word. In form, language and action this text is an unicum.

It had to wait roughly years to be deciphered since it was first published by Ernesto Monaci in That bears testimony to the extraordinary virtuosity built by the poet into this song whichat least in partis about singing. Here we reach the end of the two cancioneiros de cavaleiros Oliveira. From now on, with the exception of King Dinis, the poets are all known or presumed to be Galician jograes. But for many we have no data for even a floruit. We will see that the poets who were at Alfonsos court tend to employ forms that are relatively more hi-tech Cohen, From Folksong than aaB and its kin, while those few who probably did not appear in that court Veer, Zorro, Giinzo are likely to use simpler forms and provide less information about the complex phenomenon of song.

Pero de Veer 6. The dialogue between mother and daughter can be summarized as: Why are you sad? Singing is mentioned, but there is none. The mother implies that not to sing is to be sad. The metaphor only works if to sing is to show happiness: a happy girl sings, we can infer. Cantando is the last word of the refrain, while cantar is the last word of the first verse of the second strophe.

Even if nobody sings, cantar is featured, but so is chorar vv. Singing and crying are set in binary opposition, conceptually, lexically and formally. Johan Zorro 6. Here a girl is singing and happy.

Unlike Estevan Coelhos girl, who was singing indoors, here the girl is outside, walking along the riverbank. What she wants is for the boat that is carrying her boy to arrive: venhan-nas barcas nas is the plural article : I hope the ships come. She is singing a song of waiting, a kind of speech-action often represented in this genre.

So her song is like a cantiga d amigo. In this genre the use of a dobre I. The combination mixes apparently lo-tech strophic form and hi-tech rhetoric. But masculine and feminine rhymes are mixed in the refrain of only seven cantigas d amigo Cohen, Cantigas, 44, n3. The displays of formal and rhetorical virtuosity seem appropriate if, as seems probable, Zorro was a jograr performing at the Portuguese court whether that of Afonso III or of Dinis, is uncertain. Juio Bolseiro 9. The girls boyfriend, who is mui trobador v. And he put some lirias in the son melody that tear out her heart.

But what are lirias?

The word, in this form, is hapax legomenon, found only once in the language but see Cohen, Etymological Wordlist. It appears to be a metaphor for musical, specifically vocal, embellishment. This interpretaton, which seemed to me the most probable, was reached independently by the musicologist Manuel Pedro Ferreira personal communication, We see, then, the potential emotional effect of musical virtuosity. Song is a tool of seduction, an erotic technique. And we learn that the boy praised her v.

Thus we are told what action he performed in his song praise and her response: gratitude and heart-rending feelings. Song represents action, is itself an action when performed, and produces an emotional. Inside and out, song shows itself over and over to be praxis. Pedr Amigo de Sevilha 7. In vv. Diz in v. And in v. Who is the song for? The girl will know from the song itself refrain once she has learned it aprender; v. As in Guilhade 19, a song can be meant for a specific person.

There can be ambiguity however. And rivalry can arise between girls, with an implied dispute: Its for me. This girl says: If I heard it, I would know if the song he says is for me is really for me. She will have to analyze and interpret something in the form, the language, or the action represented in the song in order to know.

She thus bears witness to what happens at the receiving end of song.

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Two kinds of technical virtuosity are used here. Not counting Johan Airas and Dinis, who have fourteen between them, we find only a dozen other examples of dobre in the genre. Second, each of the two verses of the refrain ends with the same word: fez. This technique occurs in only eight other cantigas d amigo including Sevilha 2. Once more, a song about singing reveals a poet showing off his craft.

Pedr Amigo de Sevilha 9. This is one of the most complicated scripts in the genre, a unique script Cohen, From Folksong, ; Poetics of Peace, 99 and n9 , and is housed in one of the most sophisticated formal designs. This is one of only two examples of cobras dobras in the cantigas d amigo Baveca 9 is the other , but only here does the c- rhyme vary, with a different rhyme-sound in each strophe i ou en , while the a-rhyme and b-rhyme are identical in pairs of strophes.

This form is topped off with two fiindas. Complexity of form and originality of script correspond. The girl cannot talk with her boy vv. Her friend has an idea that worked for her: her boy couldnt speak with her either, but then, being a trobador, he sang a song as though it were for another woman, and behind that screen he was able to talk freely with the girl vv.

She agrees to vv. But then, her friend tells her, she must not get jealous because of the song in the fiinda, the pronoun o refers to cantar ; otherwise they those responsible for her will guard her. There is a difference between the two boys: one is a trobador v.

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But since he evidently knows how to sing trobar; v. So the addresse of a song can be falsified for personal reasons, and the script of a song can be designed to be intentionally misleading. Log In Sign Up. Rip Cohen. It should be stressed that there are far fewer aaBB songs here than in that edition, since many texts presented there as aaBB have subsequently been reinterpreted as aaB letters in bold indicate verses with internal rhyme. Angle brackets are used for additions e. Words enclosed in square brackets, e.

Tils indicating nasalized vowels which are missing in the codices have been added where historical phonology expects them and 13th-century manuscripts of the lyric regularly present them. All inter-verbal vocalic encounters which are not marked in this way should be taken as cases of hiatus.

Inner cola or, in some cases, regular word-breaks are shown by a vertical bar in the text. Cola are indicated by square brackets following the overall syllable count of the period, e. For assonant rhymes, a hyphen is used, e. The 22 texts are followed by a synopsis of strophic design and metrics. English verse translations of the poems are provided in the Appendix. By colon is meant here a metrical segment which occurs within a verse but which is long enough to stand alone by itself. In that exception in Charinho 6 , there is a colon of four syllables in the first verse of the second period which is marked by internal rhyme.

B f. B ff. B bis f. B [ bis] f. BV; cf. Cancioneiro Portuguez da Vaticana. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional. Cohen, Rip. Porto: Campo das Letras. The Cantigas of Pero Meogo. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website.

Without cookies your experience may not be seamless. No institutional affiliation. LOG IN. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: The Poetics of Peace: Erotic Reconciliation in the Cantigas d'amigo. To speak about the poetics of the cantigas d'amigo is to confront a swamp of conceptual confusion.

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