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Pedersen, Holger, Keltische Grammatik. Renfrew, Colin, Archeology and the Indo-Europeans. London: Penguin, Skeat, Walter W. Cambridge: CUP, Stenton, Frank, Anglo-Saxon England. No direct link between OE. In fact, Anglo-Norse should be rather regarded as a mixture of O. Infatti, l'anglo-norreno dovrebbe piuttosto essere considerato come una commistura di elementi diversi del danese antico e del norvegese antico.

Dating from around , the Vulgate-based text, of Matthew, Mark and part of Luke, is the surviving portion of a two-volume manuscript, which has certainly been in Lichfield since the tenth century, save for a brief period during the English Civil War. There is strong evidence that the book was in Wales, in the mid-ninth century, but, although a careful analysis of the text and comparison with other manuscripts in the same tradition is illuminating, scholars are unable to determine, with any certainty, who penned the manuscript, where and for whom.

Circumstantial evidence adds weight to the prevailing assumption that the Gospel manuscript originated in Mercia, but there can be no certainty as to its precise provenance. I testi di Matteo, Marco e parte del testo di Luca, risalenti al circa, basati sulla Vulgata, sono la parte superstite di un manoscritto in due volumi, che senza dubbio era a Lichfield sin dal X secolo, salvo per un breve arco di tempo durante la guerra civile inglese.

Prove indirette concorrono a rafforzare l'ipotesi dominante che il Vangelo ebbe origine nella Mercia, ma non abbiamo alcuna certezza per quanto concerne l'attribuzione della sua precisa discendenza. Lichfield Gospels, Beginning of Luke's Gospel. Roger Powell, who rebound the manuscript in , found evidence of the cutting of the edges of pages, during a rebinding of , probably because of vellum damage, and of the cutting into single leaves during that of The single volume breaks off at verse 9 of Luke chapter 3, and this suggests that a second volume has been lost.

There is some evidence that the remaining manuscript is incomplete. The decorated pages include the initial pages of all three Gospels, the elaboration of Matthew 1. Furthermore, some would also say, comparing LICHFIELD with other Insular manuscripts that it would be usual to include further cross and symbol pages, perhaps in association with each Gospel, and so, rich though the decorated pages are, there could have been more in the original. In the absence of any colophon, careful comparison of the palaeography and decoration is important, if the provenance of the manuscript is to be pursued further.

I fogli superstiti sono , di cui 8 finemente decorati. Le pagine decorate comprendono le pagine iniziali di tutti e tre i Vangeli, l'iniziale secondaria arabescata di Matteo 1. Si direbbe anche, inoltre, comparando LICHFIELD con altri manoscritti insulari, che sarebbe stato normale inserire altre pagine a croce e pagine emblema, presumibilmente in connessione a ciascun Vangelo, e dunque, quantunque riccamente decorate siano le pagine dell'originale avrebbero potuto essere di numero maggiore.

In mancanza del colophon, un'accurato raffronto paleografico e un raffronto della ornamentazione risulta importante nel caso in cui la ricerca sulla discendenza del manoscritto debba essere portata avanti. Insular majuscule was the invention of Ireland and spread to Lindisfarne in the C. This semi-uncial script was known in Wales in the C. Lichfield Gospels, Carpet Page. Finally, the chi-rho of Matthew 1. Infine, il chi-rho di Matteo 1. Although there are, thus, broad similarities within this small group of manuscripts, there are also some distinctions.

Their robes are stylised and rounded, rather than flowing. The figures, unusually, stand before a seat and are drawn in a style, which is said to show Mediterranean influence. The crossed staffs of Luke are unique and more familiar in later portraits of Christ. Scholars conclude that though a clear kinship can be traced between the decorated pages of these manuscripts, our scribe exercised some independence, here and elsewhere. Le figure degli evangelisti, Marco e Luca, sono meno "vivide" rispetto ai loro corrispettivi in altri Vangeli. Qualcuno le descrive come iconiche.

Le figure, insolitamente, sono stanti davanti ad uno scranno e lo stile si afferma indichi una influenza mediterranea. This conclusion is further endorsed by a study of the detail of the patterning of the decoration. Wendy Stein concludes that all this evidence points to our one scribe and decorator as conforming to the traditions of Insular or Hiberno-Saxon manuscripts, but showing some originality in the execution of the work. In the absence of a colophon and distinct corroborative evidence from other manuscripts in the tradition, whose provenance is definite, it is reasonable to say that the origin of the book lies probably in Northumbria, and perhaps even Mercia, but before we leave the subject we need to look at another and unique feature of the LICHFIELD GOSPELS - the marginalia.

There are several inscriptions in the margins of the manuscript, which include some of the oldest written Welsh in existence. They are:. Sebbene questo altare fosse precedentemente collegato a Llandaff, si ritiene ora che l'allusione sia a Llandeilo Fawr. Tutti i riferimenti a terre in Chad 3, 4, e 6 indicano aree entro 15 miglia da Llandeilo. The signature, faded but still discernible, of Bishop Wynsy on the opening folio suggests that the manuscript was in Lichfield in the C.

During the Civil War in England, Lichfield Cathedral was under siege three times and after the third siege, in , the place was ransacked and all but destroyed. The library was looted and dispersed, but Precentor Higgins is credited with saving the Gospels and they were returned to Lichfield, by the Duchess of Somerset, in or 3, in a fine case, which bears a touching inscription. It reads:. Durante la guerra civile in Inghilterra, la cattedrale di Lichfield fu sotto assedio per ben tre volte e dopo il terzo assedio nel , il luogo fu depredato e quasi distrutto.

L'iscrizione recita:. All this is clear enough but there is still the vexed question as to where the Gospels originated, and where they were between the agreed date of writing, , and their laying on the altar of St Teilo about years later. Some would say that they were written in, or for, Wales, but there is no direct evidence to support this. Tradition says that they were scribed for the shrine of St Chad. Chad came to Lichfield, as Bishop, in and although only bishop here till his death in , clearly made an enormous impact.

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Chad had been trained at Lindisfarne, under St Aidan, and spent some time in Ireland before his ordination. Whether or not it is reasonable to suggest that this altar book was then stolen from Lichfield in a border raid, and carried off to Wales, where it was laid on the altar of St Teilo, it remains a possibility. Others would say that it was stolen by the Mercians in the C.

Si potrebbe dire che furono scritti in Galles o per il Galles, ma non esiste alcuna prova diretta che convalidi questa ipotesi. Secondo la tradizione furono scritti per il reliquario di St Chad. Chad giunse a Lichfield come vescovo nel , e pur essendo stato vescovo del luogo solo fino al , anno della sua morte, egli ebbe qui chiaramente un grandissimo impatto. Beda attesta che sepolto presso la chiesa di St Mary, presumibilmente nell'attuale sito della cattedrale, nel le sue ossa furono traslate in una nuova chiesa, dedicata a St Peter, meta poi di pellegrinaggi per il culto delle reliquie.

Chad ricevette la sua formazione a Lindisfarne, sotto St Aidan, e trascorse un certo periodo in Irlanda prima di ricevere l'ordinazione monastica. Secondo un'altra ipotesi il libro in circostanze analoghe fu depredato nel X secolo dai Merci. It is reasonable to conclude that it shows all the signs of being closely linked to Ireland, Iona, Northumbria and Lindisfarne, and that, written around A. The pages show some evidence of having been exposed to poor conditions, but the manuscript is, basically, in fine condition and now on exhibition, with a supporting text, and under carefully monitored conditions, in the Chapter House of Lichfield Cathedral.

Jenkins and M. Savage, The St Chad Gospels From hand to Friend's hand about the hall I go, so much do lords and ladies love to kiss me. When I hold myself high, and the whole company bow quiet before me, their blessedness shall flourish skyward beneath my fostering shade. I understand the city to be the heavenly Jerusalem of Revelation , and the Book as the Bible itself; the first, in the Christian perspective, is the goal of life, the second is a guide to reach it. They are connected not only by having the Cross as their subject, but also by the fact that the stone cross has the runic inscription which corresponds to part of the poem.

What I propose here is to read the three works in close connection, considering them eminently as different but complementary versions of the Book, or at least that part of the Book related to the Passion and Resurrection of Christ, providing thus a series of signposts towards the heavenly city. In few words, they present the Cross as via gloriae , a way to glory. Both works have proved to be a rich mine for a wide variety of critical and interpretative approaches, including art and liturgy, patristic theology and missionary activity of Irish and Anglo-Saxon monks.

While referring to all this, I prefer to remain in the field I am most familiar with: that of textual analysis, which I will extend to both the monument and the poem. Before proceeding let us summarily describe the three objects under consideration. The connection between the monument and the book comes from the fact that the short poem carved on the cross is literally part of the longer poem. A main point should be made here. The very style of Anglo-Saxon poetry, where the lines are based on short self-contained phrases and sentences linked by alliteration and cut by a regular caesura, allows many processes of selection and recomposition with no apparent difficulty.

I think that the best way to deal with this problem is to consider the short poem as we can reasonably read it now something complete in itself, and to examine it accordingly. In fact, if the sculptor selected and quoted lines from a longer poem which is not necessarily the ' DREAM' as we have it now , he did exactly what we do when we analyse a text by selecting, stressing and examining a few passages which we consider more important or more meaningful. That is the reason why I think that the Ruthwell poem is worth an analysis of itself.

It is well known that in the early Middle Ages the crucifixion was rarely represented as a death scene: even when not dressed as a pontifex, with a regal crown on his head, Christ was in any case a living body, shown with his eyes wide open. A very good example of this treatment is the world-famous twelfth-century ivory cross coming from Bury St. Edmunds and now at the Cloisters, New York. The monument is 5. But he is honest to say that this is only a supposition see p.

It is easy to infer from this that the cross could appear at the same time the mark of where Christianity had arrived, a leading signpost for travellers, both in material and spiritual sense, and a continuous invitation to preach the Gospel of Christ, which found in the cross its highest point of manifestation and its major driving force to tell around the good news of salvation.

I will do this by carefully looking at its iconographic programme, although I must warn from the beginning that there is a wide margin of hypothesis in this discussion, because the Cross, due to weathering and seventeenth-century Puritan fanaticism, is not in very good condition, and quite a few of its images are hardly legible, so that this programme can be only suggestively reconstructed.

I agree with Robert T. So, on the two broad and principal faces looking now North and South of the Cross we have a series of figurative scenes, surrounded by Latin quotations mostly taken from the Bible and used as captions. The two narrower sides West and East faces are decorated with a vine scroll inhabited by birds and fantastic animals, and surrounded by borders containing some lines of a poem on the crucifixion written in Old English runes. Symbolism through vegetal and animal life and mysterious letters versus reality, one would say, to which we should add the choice of connecting the death of Christ with the flowering of a tree on which various kinds of creatures are feeding, a paradox which is at the very centre of the Christian theology of Redemption.

The principal face of the Cross, now looking north N , but originally turned to west, from where Ireland pilgrims probably would come, contains scenes which are connected in some way with the desert. Their sequence, from top to bottom, is:. For coloured photographs of the faces of the Ruthwell Cross, see Alexander Bruce's website. The message of the northern scenes sounds as a clear invitation to the contemplative monastic life of the Desert Fathers, involving both hardness and security, both temptation and salvation.

All figures can be interpreted according to these double meaning. Scene N1: John the Baptist, at the top, is a typical desert figure, and as such it was recognised as the founder of monasticism, especially in the form of solitary life. He announces the coming of the Lamb of God, an image which alludes both to death and glory, both to Jesus, as the man dying on Calvary hill, and to the triumphant apocalyptic Lamb sitting at the right hand of the throne of God.

N2 Christ in majesty adored by beasts directs our attention to the days of the temptation in the desert, at the beginning of the public ministry of Jesus, after the Baptism. It may of some interest to note, as Meyvaert does, that a text connecting the wild beasts with the desert in the context of the Flight into Egypt is found in an incomplete copy of the Psalter Psalms with a Latin commentary and some Irish and Northumbrian glosses, considered to belong to the early 8th century and to derive from a monastery which was part of the paruchia of St.

Columba in Northumbria Meyvaert, p. Paradoxically but the cross is first and foremost a paradox , the desert where some men try to follow the example of Christ by leading a hard and solitary life becomes the place where to celebrate the joy of brotherhood. The Flight into Egypt N4 , involving a long journey through the desert, may indicate the vocation to take to the wilderness in order to fly from the world and from the new Herods who inhabit it.

It has been suggested Meyvaert, p. The main point remains, and it is the passage through the desert. So, the desert is a road to freedom, and it is in the desert that the protection of God is experienced. The exile is but the manifestation of the real condition of men on earth, who are pilgrims towards the heavenly Jerusalem Heb The monastic vocation, as is known, with its strong eschatological overtones, has at its core the visualisation of earthly life as a pilgrimage.

So, the North face celebrates the desert as a place where to meet God, and to experience that death to oneself which opens the door to giving life to others. The south face presents with the Annunciation S4 and the Crucifixion S5 , the beginning and the end of the story of Christ with us. Incarnation and Redemption constitute the two basic polarities of Christian faith, and contrary to what may seem, the two events of Annunciation and Crucifixion are closely interconnected.

In the Middle Ages it was believed that the date of these two events coincided: Christ was conceived and died on the 25 March. The theme appears more explicitly in the Dream of the Rood, where the cross personifies both the angel of God as a messenger it announces the vision of the cross and its meaning and Mary the cross is elected, as she was, to carry the Word of God to the world.

It appears a perfect icon of the spiritual programme of the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Church of the time, and its link with the Crucifixion sculpted under it presents, so to speak, a programme and its realisation, the beginning and the end, enhancing thus the meaning of the monument, not only as a place where people are gathering to hear a sermon, but as being a sermon itself. The healing of the man born blind S3, see Martin McNamara in connection with Irish Gospels, poetry on Crucifixion is a notorious and clear image of baptism as illumination.

It hints at the healing power of the cross, and shows what happens when a man meets Christ and hears his words. Since the rich meaning of this event is well known I do not need to expand on it. Let it suffice to remember that the particular force of this miracle is that the man born blind is an image of humanity sunk in original sin, from which it could have never be saved except by an intervention of God himself. The scene with the woman wiping with her tears the feet of Jesus S2 is a sign both of love and of forgiveness of sins, especially in the sacrament of penance thought of as a second baptism.

If the two upper figures are Mary and Martha S1 , as they may be, they allude at the two ways of serving God, through active or contemplative life, according to the well known interpretation of the two sisters given by Gregory the Great and the Venerable Bede. It may be interesting to compare the two meeting women of the south face with the two meeting men of the north face, and to see it as a celebration of the new fraternity deriving from the cross.

To summarise the homiletic meaning of this part of the cross, we may read the message of salvation as saying that: God heals our wounds by dying on the cross, realising in this way what had been announced to the Virgin Mary. She is the first to be illuminated by listening to the announcement given by the angel, and by offering her life to the service of God. In the figure of the man born blind salvation reaches humanity at large, taking away the original sinfulness and opening our eyes into salvation.

The woman at the feet of Jesus is a sign both of love and repentance, showing thus the practical effect of the coming of Jesus and of meeting him. The sacraments of baptism and reconciliation are figured here, as the Eucharist was alluded to in the figures of the desert fathers, Paul and Anthony, breaking the bread together. This is certainly what I would preach today looking at those scenes, drawing out their potential meaning, whether the sculptor intended it or not.

It may be useful to remember that at the time there was no distinction between asceticism and mission, between being a pilgrim and building a Christian community, between monasticism and evangelism, given the basic fact that a monk thought of himself, and was thought of by other Christians, as the ideal version of Christian faith and discipleship, to be imitated, at least intentionally, by all, and that the monastic profession was accordingly interpreted as a second baptism.

After the reasonable integrations derived from the longer poem to replace lost or illegible lines, the short poem, or what remains of it, reads like this. Stripped himself God Almighty when He wanted to ascend on to the gallows, strong before all men. Bow I dared not []. I held a powerful king, the Lord of heaven, I dared not bow down. Christ was on the cross. Then many came quickly, faring from far noble ones to that one. I beheld it all. Sorely I was smitten with sorrow, I bowed [to the men, to their hands] []. With arrows wounded, Limb-weary they laid Him down; they stood at the head of His body; They beheld Him there.

The conclusion of the cross is only natural: such great and triumphant enterprise cannot be jeopardised by a weak attitude on the part of the cross: she cannot bow, she does not want to bow. The second part shows the actual suffering which lurks behind the heroic and majestic side of the scene. Two kinds of suffering are mentioned: physical and mental, blood and insults. In such a compressed stanza if we can take it as a stanza glory and humiliation, joy and pain go side by side, because before introducing images of sorrow, one is reminded that the suffering protagonist is in fact the great king, the Lord of Heaven.

If we remember what was said in the Vita Willibaldi , that the great crosses erected in the open air were places where people would gather to pray, these words of the short poem are very appropriate, and praying may be intended literally as staying at the head of the Lord, before his cross, to behold and contemplate what he did for us, to re-enact the story of his death in order to come to a new eternal life, as he did. The process of identification with Jesus, a major theme of the longer poem, is underlined also in the short one.

The cross is strong as Jesus she does not bow: I , suffers physically and mentally with him II and III , with Christ sees men coming to the Lord seeking for him III ; with them stays at the foot of Jesus, where it is at the same time wounded like him and adoring him after the great battle he has fought to crush death IV. In I VDR, lines , a narrator describes a vision he had at night, when he saw a mysterious sign, both glorious and bleeding, appearing in the sky.

In II , the sign, which is now explicitly the cross, narrates the death of Christ and its own involvement in it. III is a sort of homily in which the cross explains the theological and spiritual meaning of the death of Christ. In IV , the narrator, having absorbed the message of the cross, prays and shows his desire to follow Christ bearing his cross in order to be with him and with all the preceding followers of his in the kingdom of heaven. On the other hand, the number four is crucial in the very symbolism of the cross, as it is shown in a much quoted text of St Paul, where the love of God has four dimensions: breadth, length, depth and height Eph Theologically, a more simple structure is probably the best way to read the poem, whose meaning can be reduced to a variously expressed polarity: fiducia gloriae and doctrina patientiae hope of glory and teaching on patience to quote Augustine, or, more concisely, sacramentum et exemplum mystery and example to use the words of Pope Leo the Great.

Anyone reading the 'DREAM OF THE ROOD ' can verify how Christ is constantly showed to be both man and God, either by using opposite qualifications when he is named, or by contrasting any humiliating situation with the memory of his glorious real condition, or even by the ambiguity of some words for example ascend, OE gestigan , used to indicate the actual mounting of Jesus on to the gallows, and to suggest his final ascension into heaven.

A reader can never forget that the man who is dying on the cross is the Lord of creation, which is shown weeping at the death of its king. Here are some powerful lines from the longer and later version:. Darkness had Covered with clouds the ruler corpse, That radiant splendour. The first of these three stages can be read in lines The third stage is illustrated in the whole third part of the poem, to which I refer the reader. A spiritual programme is offered here, described as a passage from passivity to activity, in which, paradoxically, the highest point of activity coincides with the deepest experience of passivity.

The idea of pilgrimage has a very long story and is deeply embedded in the Christian spirituality. In Celtic Christianity it had become a way of living. In this perspective I think we may read Part I and IV, where the narrator is the protagonist, as signifying two sorts of pilgrimage: the pilgrimage of the mind in the first part the vision , and the pilgrimage of desire the prayer in the second.

The startling nocturnal vision is meant to wake up the imaginative powers of the mind and to start contemplation. After Part II and III have so movingly re-enacted the experience of the crucifixion, in which the cross is deeply and progressively involved, Part IV expands on the pilgrimage of desire. This is explicitly described:. My mind was driven towards departure.

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Many I had endured hours of longing. This desire towards it is great in my heart, and all my hope is directed to the cross. In the DR this verb, OE secan , recurs at important points. It remains the main Christian ideal, and it is refreshing to notice that, through time, in this respect things have not changed, and to consider how profitably ancient monuments and old texts continue to help us in this searching for God. Da parte mia ritengo che questa sia anzitutto una croce "missionaria", connessa con l'opera di evangelizzazione, e non essenzialmente con la vita contemplativa.

Anche la presenza dei due Padri del Deserto come due importanti testimoni di una vita interamente dedicata alla "ricerca" di Dio. Parma: Pratiche Editrice, Brendan Cassidy, Princeton University, Princeton Michael Swanton. The Dream of the Rood. Exeter: Exeter University Press, Exeter Both the Vercelli and Whitby manuscripts are now outside of the British Isles, the first in Italy, the second in Switzerland, brought there by insular peregrini.

Similarly the Anglo-Saxon Franks Casket, with its riddle of being made from a beached whale's bone and its runes, has ties with the city of Florence, one part of it now in the Bargello Museum. The inhabited vine sculptures of Jarrow, Ruthwell and Bewcastle could be the work of Benedict Biscop's imported stone masons, conversant in French and even Roman sculpture, Abbot Ceolfrith sending these to King Nechtan of the Picts in northern Britain, where Ruthwell is, in the year In prof.

Con il contributo della Professoressa Maria Giulia Amadasi abbiamo potuto vedere la connessione tra alfabeto fenicio, l'etrusco e le rune. Successivamente con la visita a Fiesole abbiamo potuto vedere delle iscrizioni etrusche che ricordavano perfettamente le rune della Croce di Ruthwell. Bede says Benedict Biscop had his church of St Peter's Wearmouth have scenes of the Gospel on the south wall, from St John's Apocalypse on the north wall, to teach even those who could not read.

Moreover, it palimpsests in distant Ruthwell, beyond Hadrian's Wall, in Scotland, far from Jarrow and Wearmouth, farther still from Jerusalem, Christ's words to the penitent woman,. I noted that Christ, standing on the lion and dragon in the desert, holds a scroll, as he had in the synagogue in Nazareth held the Isaiah scroll Luke 4. Cristo e Satana discorrono di questo salmo nelle tentazioni nel deserto Matteo 4, , Luca 4, Beda sostiene che Benedict Biscop volle che sulla parete sud della chiesa di St Peter di Wearmouth vi fossero scene tratte dal Vangelo, dall'Apocalisse di San Giovanni sulla parete nord come modo per insegnare anche agli analfabeti.

Christopher Francis Battiscomb. The Relics of St Cuthbert. London: Oxford University Press, Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Bertram Colgrave and R. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Robert T. British Archeological Reports Baldwin Brown. London: Murray, David Dumville. Ralph W. Runes: An Introduction.


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Manchester: Manchester University Press, Julia Bolton Holloway. Clifford Davidson and John H. New York: Peter Lang, Donald D. McIntyre and E. The Coffin of St Cuthbert. Reading the Past. London: British Museum Press, Walker, Cuneiform , John F. Healey, The Early Alphabet , W. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Barbara C. The company has produced 12 shows see Company History , which have received critical acclaim, and toured in Ireland, Wales, Czech Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria.

His director-devised work is created through a process of structured improvisation with performers. One day set up. Lighting rig and floor plans to be provided by theatre in advance. Lighting: lighting rigged hung by theatre prior to company arrival, where possible Set: one set including flats false wall with door, and a rubbish skip.

Standard lighting with computerised control. One technician from theatre required. One lighting operator required in each theatre. Sound operated by company. Gira por Irlanda en Noviembre Decorado: Un juego de paredes falsas con puerta y un conteiner contenedor industrial de residuos de obra. El autor de este documento ha querido utilizar el juego de palabras de Skip, como sustantivo que significa Container o Contenedor de Obra y uno de las acepciones del verbo To Skip, que significa Saltar, Botar, Brincar o Saltarse. Volem captar les forces que intervenen al mar, el trot dels cavalls o de qualsevol altra cosa.

Translation - English The Neutral Mask The neutral mask is a tool which helps us find the essence of the things and dynamics in life. With it we work on the here and now; it has no past, it lives in the present and builds the future. The mask proposes a route which each of us finds ourselves on or, as Normal Taylor said, may find ourselves on. The work is done through practice, since we assimilate the information faster and in greater volume. Experimentation with the mask is fundamental. On the whole, we are talking about a pedagogical tool, conceived for the stage, whose main aim is to get everyone together in just one reference.

Moreover, it is a mask that does not bring any conflict to the stage. In the end the mask brings up more questions than answers and it facilitates the pedagogical task as well as inciting thought and reflexion. One of the basic procedures for this work dynamic is the elemental voyage, not in the literal sense, but in the sense of the transit from recreation to performance.

In the first phase with the neutral mask you work on physical circuits, stage presence, situations, etc.

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Pedagogically, the neutral mask opens new routes, one of which is the reconciliation with our mimetic capacities, that is to say, the game of identification. The neutral mask has the capacity to mime - not from the surface - with great depth; it mimics the dynamics, dynamic mime. We wish to trap the forces which intervene in the sea, the canter of horses, or any other thing. These circuits will be the physical surface onto which the emotions will be printed. One of the key concepts to neutral mask work is exactitude, more than if it is right or wrong, and feeling whether the action is balanced or not.

When the mask awakens, the first thing it discovers is the space surrounding it, and we have to be able to get up, discover it and create a whole landscape, or to make people believe that we are in the middle of an immense space with the sea way off in the distance. On the other hand, the mask is theatre and the theatre has limits. We must work with limited time and space, for example the distance to the spectator must be precise, if we get to close or go too far away we must be aware that there are consequences. The mask we work with is called an equilibrium mask; it is expressionless and transmits a sensation of calm.

To make a neutral mask we must be good observers, have certain notions of anatomy and reflect humanity in a universal way. With the mask we must extract the common essence of all faces. In general we all agree that we have two eyes, a nose and a mouth, so we should leave any fantasy to one side. Simplicity of form brings us to the basic geometry, enabling us to underline the indispensable, without decorations.

Ideally we should find our own neutral mask, just like Jacques Lecoq did with the sculptor Amleto Sartori. They talk about five points on the mask if we look at it face on, the forehead, the nose, the cheekbones and the chin. Therefore if we turn it sideways we will see three points and if we turn it to the other side we will also see three points. It is a model devised to guarantee visibility for the audience.

Physically this comes across as retracted hips, broken bodies, which think behind the mask in a psychological tense or just because they have put the mask on as if they were wearing a plate on their heads. In all of these cases the mask exposes that something is wrong. This is precisely one of the properties of the mask: to help us develop a direct presence away from our own self.

Without the mask, when we observe the actor, we move straight to the face, where we find all the information. With the mask on, the face is the body, the eyes the head. It is extremely important to carry this idea of making everyone the same to its maximum consequences. With the mask we have to find the points that make us the same, before being different.

Not equals, but the same. When Lecoq addresses the human being through the neutral mask in his school, he talks about humanity as a generic thing, that is, as something common to all of us. Moreover, he also said that the mask works with common titles, such as going through the woods, surviving an earthquake, fleeing from a fire, crossing a river, etc. With this we enter into the logic of the working of the neutral mask; that is, to work with situations and not with characters, we speak of titles but never of characters.

The neutral mask work is the first step in a process which aims to teach an actor how to create a character, but before establishing a character we must learn to create situations. We will speak in generic terms because they are actions that belong to the history of man from the beginning of time; in this way we can progress towards grand themes.

But in order to find the generic in pedagogical work we need to find situations and spaces where all humans fit in, all humanity could be present; this is why neutral space is adequate for situations of Man versus Environment. In reality the neutral mask can talk about anything, it can evolve as much as we want, as long as we work along the concept of neutrality and we are very clear about what we are working on. The neutral mask is in a state of calm, available for any event, about to be discovered, always curious, slightly surprised, slightly innocent.

To be available means to be free from tics and parasitic expressions. We could say that the openness of the mask is an expression of an inner state, a blank page on which to inscribe the emotion and make the character tangible. This is where the exploration of the collective body comes in to play, this relationship between the heart and the mask. In fact, all along the voyage of the mask it is very important to join in group improvisations, in which all participants serve up the same image, in a common space, using the same fixed points.

If we are in the middle of a forest then two or three of us pick up a tree trunk. When we take part in a joint action the mask relates the separate elements to the larger whole. The idea is to decentralize individuality through the heart. We, as actors, reveal ourselves since the mask shows our real selves, but our path has to be to defend the body. The most important thing is for us to grasp our own neutrality, because through it is the way to find deformation, it is like a fixed point from which we can project.

Neutrality, once the actor has incorporated it, is a reference that they will always carry with them, like a compass pointing north. The neutral mask is a pedagogical reference point for the actor and for theatre in general, a base structure from which an actor can stand stable in every other space. These permanencies are multiple birth, presence, availability, stretch, push, react The quality of our presence is related to the rigour of our work; the more we confront the ideas we are given voyages, cataclysms, exoduses the more we store a tacit sense of what our stage presence manifests.

This level of presence will be maintained with all the other masks. On the other hand, the mask puts us into a state of emergency. When we talk of urgency we refer to stepping out of everyday lives, that is, to block, to break the logic and reflexes of that behaviour, which is what Lecoq calls Recreation. From here on we put on a neutral mask and a state of urgency to create a stage presence. This is what Lecoq called the elevation of behaviour. Throughout neutral mask work we must settle our bodies on the third or fourth lumbar vertebra, an inch below the navel.

This makes us take on a certain stance, weight and breathing pattern, increasing our stamina on stage. Fons , if we look at neuroscience, more specifically Michael D. It is a case of stimulating there nerve endings, which make up the, so called, second brain. Gershon explains that this Enteric Nervous System is connected to the Central Nervous System the brain via a nerve called the vagus nerve. Avoiding mysticisms - speaking in physical terms - we can say that this second brain makes sense because there is a whole neural network which is also activated the brain , and this proves the body-mind interaction.

So, from the centre we enter in economy of movement, from the support of our central axis we project. As soon as we start doing a structured job, the screen of the mask comes alive and starts to register. This is interesting to work on for students, as little by little they will acquire the concepts, the level of presence, the economy of movement and the situational work.

The neutral mask gives the actor a tangible bodily base which is very useful for any interpretative style. Be that as it may, the most important area is the performing capacity - innate or acquired - of the actor, as well as a certain minimum physical fitness. When we work with a neutral mask we see bodies moving about on a stage; the importance flows from the human body, because the mask does not let us talk, it erases our face, and you can only see the body.

With the neutral mask we have a blank screen on our faces which shows what we do with our body. One of the main attributes of the neutral mask is to promote bodily gestures in the actor and, in the end, be aware that the body is their face and the head their gaze. We know, for example, if someone is fleeing in terror, we can even imagine it.

We see that it is important to move on a level which is still not a character; we work from effectiveness and equality. When I worked the neutral mask with Lecoq, it would help me to imagine those iconic little men who live traffic signals, I would move with this essentialist idea. It has just the right amount of jealousy, just the right amount of happiness, and these exercises make us become more and more aware of the neutral mask as a fixed point. We find emotion in our physical actions; the more precise we are the more internal effect we feel - even though we are working from neutrality.

In the end, the important thing is that the physical action and emotion operate simultaneously and that one provokes the other. In conclusion, we are discussing a tool which will be useful for a time, but after a while we will take it off and leave it to one side. Then the actor will have the basics to find their own theatre. The neutral mask is the basic level of organization, indispensable knowledge which is a fundamental part of all following levels of organization, even if it is without the physical mask.

From here we can search for the neutrality of passions, the neutrality of our own expression, the neutrality of a character, the neutrality to create a scene, etc. It is the basis of everything, it is a fundamental tool for any author. Goa muda de piel en cada entrega. Not long after, what started out as a place where a couple of friends would get together, turned into a place of cult for clubbers that wanted the latest trends in music.

The name GOA is intended to bring up images of the spiritual side of India and has nothing to do with the musical style called Goa-Trance. Five years later, when the Goa After Club was closed down in the idea came about to organize a series of periodic events that would keep the GOA name and spirit alive without losing the essence of what had made it so successful in the first place. This is the beginning of a new era for GOA, reinventing itself and creating a large scale event where music, video-art, performances and first-class shows merge into one fascinating proposal.

Aesthetics and technology at the service of dance.

Fall On Me (Italian Version)

GOA went from being a small club for people to being one of the most important electronic music club events in Europe, entertaining two generations of clubbers along the way. GOA is now one of the biggest club events in Europe, both in number of clubbers and quality of the artists it hires. Spanish to English. Proud to be a ProZ. Requete adressee par le Gouvernement Persan a la Conference des Preliminaires de Paix a Paris afin d'etre admis a y participer. La Guerre et la Paix.

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Letter of Christopher Columbus, describing his first voyage to the Western Hemisphere. Christopher Columbus.