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If we ask what is Pragmatism? Murray, 10 one of the younger members of the school, says that the mission of Pragmatism is "to bring philosophy into relation to real life and action" —a somewhat colourless description applicable to most forms of philosophical endeavour. Schiller of Oxford affirms that "pragmatism, as a logical method, is merely the conscious application of a natural procedure of our minds in actual knowing.

The criterion of truth, according to A. Moore, "is always the fulfilment of a specific finite purpose. Pragmatism is mainly the product of American thought. It can scarcely be said to have taken root in Germany. But a number of recent British writers have lent it their support in varying degrees. Bawden, Balwin, Lovejoy and Hocking. There is, moreover, a special "Chicago school," which has made a type of pragmatism the chief plank in its basis of teaching. In England the movement is represented chiefly by the "Humanism" of Schiller, and perhaps the "paradoxism" of Bernard Shaw.

The pragmatic point of view was first proposed as a maxim by C. James accords the honour of being the pioneer in this line of thought. Peirce indeed uses the term, but according to him it is the name of a doctrine, not of truth, but of meaning. James, however, elaborated the idea and gave it a much wider application. According to James, Pragmatism seeks to interpret the meaning of conceptions by asking what difference they make in the affairs of practical experience?

What is their value for life? The ultimate test of what a truth means is the conduct it dictates and the consequences it involves. What hypotheses are to science, concepts generally are to mankind. The justification of a theory is that it is practically helpful. Anything "that works" in life may be called true. When we call an action right, the old notion is that it corresponds with some abstract ideal standard.

But, says the pragmatist, we can only judge of actions by their consequences. James affirms that the true is the expedient in our way of thinking; just as the right is the expedient in our way of behaving. Originally set forth in his Will to Believe , Pragmatism was claimed to be a method rather than a system of philosophy.

FLORIN VASILIU PARADOXISM'S MAIN ROOTS

It was, according to James, simply a working conception by which, in default of scientific evidence, one may contrive to live and turn nature to one's own ends. After maintaining this guarded position for a number of years Prof. James claimed that Pragmatism was not a "method only," but "a certain theory of truth.

James, "are those that we can assimilate, validate, corroborate, and verify. It is wholly subjective, relative, instrumental. The emphasis is laid not on absolute principles, but on consequences. The test of truth is its utility, its workableness. If Prof. James really means that truth is, after all, just what answers best and that an idea can be made true by its satisfactory consequences, then some will not scruple to go a step further and say, "truth is what pays best. James can hardly mean anything so crude. It is only natural that his position has called forth much controversy. Like every new theory, it has probably assumed an exaggerated form, and many of its excrescences have, during the last few years, been dropped.

Strictures have been made, and some of those who acknowledge their adherence to the main principle seek by subtle explanation, and cautious qualification in regard to details, to tone down their advocacy. It is not our purpose to follow him in discussing the minute differences between these classes. Among the most thorough-going he instances Wm. James and Schiller. Of the Semi-Pragmatists he names Balwin, who defines Pragmatism as "the doctrine that the whole 'meaning' of a conception expresses itself in practical consequences, consequences either in the shape of conduct to be recommended or in that of experience to be expected, if the conception is true.

He insists that an idea is a 'plan of action'; but he does not definitely propose to measure trueness in any sense by the demands of practice.

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In the preface to that profound and valuable work he says, "the pragmatic test has meant much in our time as a principle of criticism, in awakening the philosophic conscience to the simple need of fruitfulness and moral effect as a voucher of truth. But invaluable as a guide do I find this negative test: if a theory has no consequences, or bad ones: if it makes no difference to men, if it diminishes the worth to them of what existence they have; such a theory is somehow false, and we have no peace till it is remedied What difference is made to you and necessarily made by your equipment of religious ideas and beliefs?

If they are powerless they are false. But it is doubtful if his negative does not involve a positive: and he seems to be logically driven on to an essential and thorough-going Pragmatism which really makes truth in the last resort instrumental, dependent upon what it effects.

Without dwelling further upon the varieties of meaning which have been given to Pragmatism, it may be asked, does not this subjective mode of regarding truth contradict the very nature of truth? If truth has no independent validity, if it is not something that exists in its own right, irrespective of the interests and inclinations of man, then its pursuit can bring no enrichment to our spiritual being.

It remains something alien and external, a mere arbitrary appendix of the self. It is not the essence and principle of human life. If its sole test is what is advantageous, is desirable, it sinks into a mere utilitarian opinion or selfish bias. Eucken's objection to Pragmatism seems justifiable. According to the pragmatic theory, moreover, truth is apt to be broken up into a number of separate fragments without correlation or integrating unity.

There will be as many hypotheses as there are individual interests. The truth that seems to work best for one man or one age may not be the truth which will best serve another. In the collision of opinions who is to arbitrate? If it be the institutions and customs of to-day that are to be the measure of what is good, then we seem to be committed to a condition of stagnancy. Finally, truth is undoubtedly a growth; it is in the making in the sense that we are only gradually attaining to a fuller realization of the meaning and value of life.

The old cleft between two fixed worlds is no longer tenable. The theory of a static reality over against the mind, which it is the function of thought simply to "copy," leads indeed to the breakdown of all knowledge: and the conviction of the unity of existence has permeated all the best thought of the time. Cause and effect, acts and consequences, roots and fruits, cannot be separated.

The one is the potency of the other. They are inseparably bound together. It is the truth of the whole that counts, a partial or abstract or instrumental truth falls short of reality. Truth can only exist as an ultimate or end in itself. Truth presupposes a rational universe. We can regard those judgments only as true which express what is compatible with the totality of reality. The last movement to which we shall draw attention is styled Neo-Realism.

This new form of an old problem has this in common with Pragmatism, that it, too, has its origin in a reaction to the Absolute Idealism of the Neo-Hegelian school. Clyde Macintosh, "seems to have been to arrive at an absolute monism in Epistemology by the opposite route taken by the idealists. We are in immediate touch with objects. Thus Neo-realism holds that the problem of knowledge is simplified and the old Kantian bugbear of "the thing in itself" disappears.

But though the new realism is more elaborate and complex it shares Reid's doctrine of ideas, holding with him that they are but "fictions" contrived to account for the phenomena of the human understanding. Reid's doctrine of "immediate presentation" has within it the seeds of the modern theory. The realistic movement which belongs to this century includes among its adherents a large number of English and American philosophers.

Among its English representatives may be named L. Hobhouse, G. Nunn, A. Wolf, and, as a recent convert, G.

Citations, Conceptions and Constructions

Among those associated with the movement in America are F. Woodbridge, G. Fullerton, E.


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M'Gilvary, and six others who have collaborated in the interests of the problem, viz. Perry, W. Montague, E. Holt, W. Marvin, W. Pitkin, and E. As yet no comprehensive treatment of the subject has been published, and the individual views are to be discovered chiefly in fugitive papers and articles in current philosophical journals.

Before, however, referring to the principal topics discussed, a glance may be given to the immediate causes or antecedents of this phase of thought. Many factors have contributed to its appearance. Emphasis may be laid, first of all, upon the influence of modern science. It has been suggested that not only the general scientific attitude to reality, but the hypotheses regarding external existence which many naturalists and others have found to yield satisfactory results, would seem to afford a more solid basis for a correct understanding of the actual world than that which has been so long accepted by idealistic philosophy.

The close interdependence of body and mind, the mutual relations and frequent overlapping of psychological and physical facts have disclosed complexities of condition which absolute idealism fails to account for. It has been contended also that historically idealism has broken down. In the ranks of Absolutism itself doubts have arisen as to the validity of the idealistic conception of the world. The disintegration of the Hegelian school brought to a head by the negative criticism of Bradley seemed to call for an attempt to develop a realistic interpretation of life more in consonance with actual experience.

Once more, the "Experience philosophy" of some continental thinkers concerning the genesis of the "Self,"—notably Wundt, Avenarius, and Mach—was not without its influence upon both English and American psychologists. Finally, some American realists acknowledge especially the influence of Wm. James, whose last work, Empirical Radicalism , struck a new note; not a few also have been indebted to the writings of the English veteran, Shadworth Hodgson for many years president of the Aristotelian Society , whose keen criticism of the Kantian "thing in itself," and whose acute Analysis of Consciousness without Assumptions have had no little effect in stimulating and consolidating the new departure.

Of those who have led the way in this enquiry prominence must be given, among English writers, to Hobhouse, Schiller, and latterly Stout; and among Americans, to Fullerton, whose essay entitled "The New Realism" in Essays in Honour of William James , , and, still more, his recent volume, The World We Live In , sound the challenge of undiluted Realism. Of the more critical writers who have conceived it to be their mission to expose the fallacies of idealism rather than expound the positive aspect of realism, none have been more active than G.

Moore and R.

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Perry; and from the logical or mathematical side, Bertrand Russell, who is the promoter of a singularly subtle if somewhat vague fusion of which the main principle seems to be the almost Platonic doctrine—that "universals are realities. Of the most prominent themes discussed by Neo-realism reference can only be made to three:— The doctrine of Qualities: The doctrine of Consciousness : and The doctrine of Relations. Perhaps the most characteristic theory of this school, and that which most clearly indicates its nature and intention, concerns the externality and independent Reality of Secondary or Sense-qualities.

Woodbridge says categorically that "consciousness and knowledge do actually disclose to us that which is in no way dependent on consciousness for its existence or character.

In other words, "reality is precisely what it appears to be. The particular qualities of things remain the same in consciousness as they are in reality, though it is acknowledged by some that the problem is rendered more complex by the well-known facts of hallucination, delusion, and imperfection or impairment of the senses. It is even admitted by S. Alexander that mental peculiarity may dislocate the real object from its normal place in the system of things and refer it to a context to which it does not belong, and thus give it a delusive aspect.

But in themselves image and percept are the same physical object under whatever different connections they may be presented. The Neo-realistic doctrine of Consciousness is the complement of the doctrine of sense-qualities. In the words of Montague, "as long as the secondary qualities are accepted as objectively real, there is no temptation to regard consciousness as anything but a relation.

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