In the s, the justice think tank proposed making sound recordings of all individuals held in police custody. The idea was set aside in the face of opposition, except for the questioning of minors who were the victims of sex offenses Sontag-Koenig, , for whom recording was not only authorized but made mandatory in It provided a first technological solution that was then repeated and extended to other situations: police custody of minor suspects, 23 then the questioning of individuals placed in police custody for a felony.
This provision was used as a standard attesting to the fact that it is no longer legally unthinkable that a trial can take place without all of the participants being physically present. Because it establishes a connection whereby images and sound are transmitted between two sites, providing for trials by videoconferencing could have been an opportunity to revive the debate on recording trials in general.
That did not happen, however. The discussion before the State Council regarding videoconferencing was so tense that the issue of recording hearings in general, which is technically possible, was omitted. The promoters did their best to prevent the issue from emerging — by assuring that videoconferencing would not be used for recording, which was prohibited by the act, modified in Thus, when the time came to regulate the practical terms for holding videoconferences between Paris and Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon, a.
In this sense, therefore, videoconferencing constitutes an additional step toward undermining the prohibition to capture, record, and transmit trials. The classic public trial is a drama in which all the characters appear in the same place at the same time. The simultaneous presence of the various parties to the conflict gives the trial its meaning Garapon, Publicness is conceived of as the ability of citizens, members of the political community, to attend the trial.
Minjoz, They act as eyewitnesses to the trial and thereby give substance to the rule requiring that trials be public. The relaying of the trial by journalists, who are external third parties, is therefore superfluous. Firstly, some trials occur without co-presence, and the number of such trials is increasing. Secondly, for such trials to take place, they had to be made legal by changes in the law.
Legislative provisions that extended videoconferencing to all or almost all types of disputes have given remote appearance the same legal status as physical appearance. Physical attendance at trial has therefore become increasingly unnecessary and less important. The notion of a public hearing itself is therefore no longer exactly what it used to be. Consequently, the introduction of videoconferencing affects not only the state of the law, but also the institutional construct — in this instance, the standard of physical presence as the customary means of entering a full appearance at trial.
The other location — a library, a meeting room in another courthouse, or a fortiori a correctional facility — is not set up to accommodate the public. Attending a hearing therefore amounts to witnessing and being able to attest to only some of the circumstances under which it took place. What happens in the remote location cannot be seen except through what is shown on the screen; what happens outside the frame disappears, and what is in the frame is in fact staged by the act of framing itself type of shot, zooming, etc.
The witnesses are therefore captive to what is shown them. In practice, although connected by videoconferencing and jointly constituting the hearing, the two sites are undeniably governed by different rules regarding publicness. In this paper we have used the French experience to show that, in fact, the two activities share a number of features and tend to influence one another. Advocates promoted the implementation of videoconferencing by dodging the issue of recording — although audio and video recording was technically possible with videoconference devices.
In a sense, they neutralized the recording capability of cameras. Rather, they based their innovation on a legal argument centered on the precedent of videotaped testimonies already in force. But what is truly interesting is that the development of videoconferencing is indeed an indirect but concrete step toward weakening the impact of the main text a law modified by a act prohibiting the recording, filming and broadcasting of French hearings. The general principle remains written in the law as a general statement, but first, there are more and more exceptions for journalists and researchers and, further, a discrete exception — which could be a decisive one if it takes off — has been introduced with videoconferencing.
This calls for analyzing a variety of technologies that at first sight do not seem to be linked but which are intertwined at the empirical level. It also suggests that ancillary innovations — such as videoconferencing — are sometimes bound to cause major transformations in the concept of what constitutes a trial. In fact, whether hearings are filmed as part of conducting them or, as in our case, for research purposes, cameras are now authorized and accepted, and are sometimes even installed by the institution itself.
The more difficult issue, and one which continues to be an obstacle, is the use that will be made of the images once a media mindset, often presented as hard to square with the judicial mindset, takes hold. Adkins, Mary E. Ares, Charles E. DOI: Camp, Allen F. Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes.
Garapon, Antoine , Bien juger. Essai sur le rituel judiciaire. Paris: O. Accessed on Kodek, Georg E. Lederer, Fredric I.
Agarwala; Murli D. Tiwari eds. New Delhi: MacMillan. Marder, Nancy S. Other Editions 1. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Berkley , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Luca rated it really liked it Oct 10, Marien rated it it was amazing Jul 13, Miriamjj6 rated it liked it Feb 27, Cristhian Gz rated it liked it Apr 01, Bruno Oliveira rated it liked it Dec 21, Luciano rated it really liked it Feb 11, Larita Romero rated it did not like it Oct 18, Yuri Rocha rated it really liked it Dec 19, Juan Antonio marked it as to-read Oct 27, Tomas marked it as to-read Mar 28, Our results showing that predominantly Anatolian-derived ancestry in the Neolithic extended to the Atlantic edge strengthen the suggestion that Euskara is unlikely to be a Mesolithic remnant [ 17 , 18 ].
Also our observed definite, but limited, Bronze Age influx resonates with the incomplete Indo-European linguistic conversion on the peninsula, although there are subsequent genetic changes in Iberia and defining a horizon for language shift is not yet possible.
This contrasts with northern Europe which both lacks evidence for earlier language strata and experienced a more profound Bronze Age migration. We used Cutadapt v. We estimated genomic coverage with Qualimap v2. In order to assess the level of contamination in ancient samples, we considered the number of mismatches in mtDNA haplotype defining mutations and determined the number of X-chromosome polymorphisms in male samples S2 Text [ 46 ]. We analysed aligned reads using mapDamage v2. We used the method published in reference [ 48 ] to determine the sex of the ancient individuals S2 Text , S2 Fig.
The genetic variation of ancient Eurasian genomes [ 2 , 4 , 5 , 11 , 14 — 21 , 23 , 53 — 56 ] was then projected onto the modern PCA lsqproject: YES option. Only ancient samples with a minimum of , pseudo-haploid calls were included. The dataset was also filtered for related individuals, and for SNPs with genotyping rate below A filter for variants in linkage disequilibrium was applied using the—indep-pairwise option in PLINK v1.
This resulted in a final , SNPs for analysis. The results for the best of these replicates for each value of K, i. Formal tests of admixture were implemented using D-statistics [ 58 ] and F-statistics [ 59 , 60 ] using the AdmixTools package version 4. We selected for genotype imputation relevant published samples that had been sequenced by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and for which coverage is above 0. In analysis I Fig 1 , imputed variants in 67 ancient Eurasian samples were filtered for posterior genotype probability greater or equal to 0.
In order to investigate the correlation between ancient ancestry in present-day populations and height genetic scores, we first calculated polygenic risk in Eurasian populations from the Human Origins dataset. This was followed by the estimation of the percentage ancestry of five distinct ancient populations EHG, CHG, WHG, Yamnaya, Anatolian Neolithic in the same dataset, which was done through the implementation of the F4 ratio method described in [ 60 ] using the Admixtools package version 4.
This table contains the individuals which were used to estimate the approximate percentage ancestry in modern populations of five ancestral groups who have contributed to western Eurasian variation, using an F4 ratio test Patterson The analysis is based on approximately , SNP positions. Moderns samples from the Human Origins dataset are represented in greyscale, with the exception of modern Iberians shown in green. Ancient samples are coloured by time depth and shaped according to geographic region.
Ancient individuals from Portugal are outlined in red. Comparison of variant calls obtained for BR2, NE1, Loschbour and Stuttgart at full coverage with genotypes from the same 4 individuals downsampled to 2x and subsequently imputed. Accuracy in A all 3 types of genotypes; B homozygous reference; C heterozygous and D homozygous alternate. Results are shown for both all sites and just transversions in two separate panels. Results are shown for both all sites and just transversions in on left hand and right hand panels respectively.
Only transversion SNPs are considered. The unlinked analysis is only able to identify 10 populations, 9 less than when incorporating the linkage model. B Normal Quantile-Quantile plots and outlier detection labelled populations. Coloured dots show populations present red or absent black in the Genomes reference haplotype dataset.
C Barplots illustrating imputed left and non-imputed right median haplotype donation light blue and the difference between median haplotype donation per population dark blue. Polygenic scores were centered at the mean for the dataset. As in Fig 1 in the main text, each cluster is represented with a different colour. SNPs with posterior genotype probability of less than 0. Blue line presents the linear regression. Individual samples are represented by gray dots and larger coloured circles represent the mean genetic score for each population.
Red—increased genetic height scores, black—decreased genetic height. Broadly, hunter-gatherers and populations from Copper age and after present highest proportion of height increasing associated variants followed by Neolithic farmers. We thank Matteo Fumagalli and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments to the manuscript. We thank Eppie Jones for critically reading the manuscript.
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The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS Genet. Published online Jul Lara M. Nuno M. Maria J. Antonio C. Ana M. Daniel G. Anna Di Rienzo, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Feb 22; Accepted Jun 2. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. S3 Text: Comparison of ancient samples with other ancient and modern datasets using genotype data. S5 Text: Imputation of missing genotypes in ancient samples. S7 Text: Analysis of polygenic traits. S8 Text: Extended haplotype homozygosity analysis. S3 Table: mtDNA lineages and contamination estimates based on mismatches at haplotype defining sites. S4 Table: Y-chromosome lineages determined in the ancient Portuguese samples.
S7 Table: List of ancient samples selected for genotype imputation. S10 Table: List of ancient individuals used in the F4 ratio test. S1 Fig: Map and geographical locations of the archaeological locations of the samples sequenced in the present study. S3 Fig: Post-mortem misincorporations in ancient samples.
S4 Fig: Principal component analysis of modern West Eurasians onto which variation from ancient genomes has been projected. S6 Fig: Estimation of imputation accuracy on chromosome S7 Fig: Proportion of correctly imputed genotypes grouped by minor allele frequency bins of 0. S8 Fig: Affinity of imputed calls to reference panel populations, relative to pseudo-haploid and diploid calls, for five high coverage ancient samples.
S9 Fig: Affinity of imputed calls from five high coverage ancient samples to reference panel populations, relative to diploid calls, for a series of MAF filters. S10 Fig: Affinity of imputed calls from five high coverage ancient samples to reference panel populations, relative to diploid calls, for the final set of SNPs used in downstream analyses.
S11 Fig: Affinity of pseudo-haploid calls to reference panel populations, relative to diploid calls, for five high coverage ancient samples. The position of aDNA samples shown in red is very similar in both analyses. S29 Fig: Bar plots illustrating polygenic risk scores across time, estimated for each one of the ancient population clusters.
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S30 Fig: Polygenic risk scores estimated for height using genomewide summary statistics from the Wood dataset. S31 Fig: Polygenic risk scores estimated for height using genomewide summary statistics Lango et al. S32 Fig: Correlation between strands of ancestry and inferred polygenic risk score in present-day Europeans. S34 Fig: Polygenic scores for pigmentation. S36 Fig: Polygenic risk scores estimated for T2D using genomewide summary statistics. Abstract We analyse new genomic data 0. Author summary Recent ancient DNA work has demonstrated the significant genetic impact of mass migrations from the Steppe into Central and Northern Europe during the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.
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Introduction Ancient genomics, through direct sampling of the past, has allowed an unprecedented parsing of the threads of European ancestry. Table 1 Summary of the samples sequenced in the present study. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Increase in local hunter-gatherer ancestry in the Middle and Late Neolithic It has been previously shown that an individual CB13 dating from the very beginning of the Neolithic in Spain showed ancestry closer to a Hungarian hunter-gatherer KO1, found within a very early European Neolithic context than to the more western HGs from LaBrana in Spain and Loschbour in Luxembourg [ 18 ].
Fig 2. Patterns of hunter-gatherer haplotype donation to ancient Eurasians. Steppe-related introgression into the Portuguese Bronze Age Next, to further investigate this apparent shift between the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Iberia, we explored haplotype sharing patterns of ancient samples in the context of modern populations. Fig 3. Total variation distance between vectors of median haplotype donation from Bronze Age purple and Neolithic green samples from different regions in Europe to modern populations. Comparison of ancient samples from Portugal with ancient and modern individuals using directly observed haploid genotypes Bronze Age Y-Chromosome discontinuity Previous studies have demonstrated a substantial turnover in Y-chromosome lineages during the Northern European Late Neolithic and Bronze Age, with R1b haplogroup sweeping to high frequencies.
Fig 4. Fig 5. Average genomic height for each of the Western Eurasian samples in the imputed dataset, plotted against its approximate date, highlighting temporal trends in genetic height.
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Extended haplotype homozygosity The role of positive selection in shaping diversity at specific loci in European populations has been of enduring interest and thus we tested whether our imputed genomes could directly reveal the imprint of adaptation in the past. Fig 6. Extended haplotype homozygosity in regions under selection. Discussion Our genomic data from 14 ancient individuals from 8 Portuguese archaeological contexts ranging from the Middle Neolithic to Middle Bronze Age throws light on how the two fundamental transitions in European prehistory affected populations at the Atlantic edge.
Read processing and analysis We used Cutadapt v. Contamination estimates and authenticity In order to assess the level of contamination in ancient samples, we considered the number of mismatches in mtDNA haplotype defining mutations and determined the number of X-chromosome polymorphisms in male samples S2 Text [ 46 ].
Sex determination and uniparental lineage determination We used the method published in reference [ 48 ] to determine the sex of the ancient individuals S2 Text , S2 Fig. D-statistics Formal tests of admixture were implemented using D-statistics [ 58 ] and F-statistics [ 59 , 60 ] using the AdmixTools package version 4. Genotype imputation We selected for genotype imputation relevant published samples that had been sequenced by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and for which coverage is above 0.
Polygenic traits in ancient samples Genetic scores for polygenic traits including height [ 27 ], pigmentation [ 64 ], Anthropometric BMI [ 65 ] and T2D [ 66 ] in 67 ancient samples were estimated using PLINK [ 67 ] using the—score flag. Supporting information S1 Text Archaeological information. DOCX Click here for additional data file. S3 Text Comparison of ancient samples with other ancient and modern datasets using genotype data.