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Furniture: Beds and other furniture was made of ice covered with animal skins. Sleeping bags were made of animal skin. Invention of Parkas and other Clothing: Warm clothing was, of course, very important! Walrus intestines were used as waterproof material. Walrus intestines are while in color, and hollow, forming very long tubes.

Arctic Inuit, Native American cold adaptations may originate from extinct hominids

Inuit children and women would blow into these tubes to inflate them. Then they made waterproof clothing from the inflated intestines and sealed it closed. They added fur trim for warmth and beauty. Jackets had parkas or hoods trimmed with fur. Boots were made from pieces of seal skin. The seal skin was kept wet while the boots were being made. Then they were set aside to dry.

Once the boots had dried, they were waterproof. Invention of Snow Goggles: In the Arctic, it is dark for 24 hours a day, for months at time. It is also light for 24 hours a day, for months at a time. The sun never sets during this time. If you have ever seen sunlight reflected off of snow or ice, you know how bright it can be. It can hurt your eyes. In a frozen world, like the Arctic, it was critical to invent something to protect their eyes from sun glare, or they could suffer from "snow blindness".

The Inuit invented snow goggles made from antlers or wood.

Tribes of the Arctic region - Conservapedia

These goggles had a thin slit over the eye so the wearer could see out, but only some light got in. Hunters and Gatherers: There are almost no trees in the Arctic. Large areas of the ground is covered with bare rocks or frozen earth. There are few plants. It is cold most of the year. The Inuit could not become farmers. Like the other early people who lived in the Arctic, they were hunters and gatherers.

In the short summer, they gathered berries, seaweed, and eggs. Their main food year around was meat. Preserving Meat and Fish: Most cooking took place in the summer. To preserve food, some food was dried. Meat and fish were sometimes preserved by storing them in an airtight sealskin bag that was buried in the summer, and dug up in the winter. The Inuit also ate food raw. A treat was a raw seal eyeball. Caribou and Seals: Because food was scarce, the Inuit could not live in the same place all the time.

They had to keep moving, following the herds. Of all the animals, the caribou was the most important. It provided food and warm fur to make clothes. They made thick gloves to protect themselves from the sub-zero arctic weather. Seals were also very important as sealskin could be made waterproof for boots and boats, provide oil for lamps, and airtight sealskin sacks to store food. Invention of Dog Sleds: In the winter, the Inuit used dog sleds to travel across the snow and ice.

The dogs wore special boots to keep their paws protected. The dogs were very important. Either they had their own igloo, or they were brought inside the family igloo at night. Invention of Kayaks: In the summer, boats were used to hunt animals. A kayak is a long, narrow boat. The kayaks were made strong enough to carry one hunter and one seal. The Inuit made kayaks from driftwood and sometimes bone. This was covered with sealskin to make it watertight, using the same system they used to make their snow boots.

first contact with Native Peoples, look what happened

They also made larger boats that could carry several warriors. These larger boats sometimes had sails made of sealskin. Invention of the Inuksuk: An Inuksuk is a stone landmark.


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People built them so they knew where they were as they trekked across the snow and ice, in search of food. Afterward the people feasted and danced in its honour. Manitou represents a pervasive power in the world that individuals can learn to use on their own behalf. The term Great Manitou, designating a personal god, probably represents a missionary-inspired adaptation of an older idea.

Maintaining a relationship with this being requires ethically good conduct.

Native American DNA is Found in Denmark and Iceland

Three of the most popular characters in Algonquian folklore are Wiitiko Windigo , a terrifying cannibalistic giant apt to be encountered in the forest; Tcikapis, a kindly, powerful young hero and the subject of many myths; and Wiskijan Whiskeyjack , an amusing trickster see trickster tale. Shamanism was an important feature of traditional Subarctic culture. The shaman , who could be male or female, served as a specialist curer and diviner in addition to his or her routine adult responsibilities.

It was thought that occasionally shamans became evil and behaved malignantly. Shamanistic ability came to an individual from dreaming of animals who taught the dreamer to work with their aid; such ability had to be validated through successful performance. Hazards to life came from the soul always being menaced by various supernatural figures that were the primary enemies of human survival and by the souls of powerful evil shamans acting on behalf of these supernatural figures see soul loss. In contrast, spirit-beings associated with animals and berries supported human survival.

By the late 19th century, Canada and the United States had established their dominance over all American Subarctic peoples. In contrast to many European colonial powers, which often promoted racial segregation , the United States and Canada promoted Indian assimilation , a policy that attempted to replace indigenous lifeways with those of the dominant culture.

Both countries used mechanisms such as compulsory education at boarding schools and the elimination of separate legal status for aboriginal peoples to implement their assimilationist goals see Native American: History. During the 20th century Subarctic peoples encountered profound local economic changes in addition to assimilationist policies. Well into the first third of the century, the northern subsistence economy continued to depend heavily upon hunting, while the cash economy derived almost entirely from the fur trade.

In response to the increasing need for wage-based income, many indigenous families relocated from the forests and trading centres to established northern cities such as Fairbanks Alaska , Whitehorse Yukon , and Churchill Manitoba , as well as to new towns, such as Schefferville Quebec , Yellowknife Northwest Territories , and Inuvik Northwest Territories.

These towns offered employment in industries such as commercial fishing , construction, mining, and defense. Expanding economic opportunities in the north also drew families from southern Canada, and for the first time fairly large numbers of indigenous Subarctic peoples and Euro-Americans interacted. By the close of the 20th century, many Subarctic peoples had become involved in cultural preservation or revitalization movements, and a portion of those chose to remain in or relocate to smaller trading-post settlements to foster a more traditional lifestyle.

Whether in rural or urban areas, many First Nations peoples and Native Alaskans began to view an intact forest landscape as an intrinsic part of their heritage. They became increasingly concerned about the economic development of the north and used a variety of means, from protest through land claims and other legal actions, to prevent or ameliorate the effects of such development.

Many of their efforts have proven successful, most notably those resulting in the Alaskan Native Claim Settlement Act U.


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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today. Some of these terms are used almost interchangeably, while others indicate relatively specific entities. The term American Indian is often used to refer…. When these processes are repeated by subsequent generations, the practice is known as cross-cousin marriage.

Arctic Culture

Native American , member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, although the term often connotes only those groups whose original territories were in present-day Canada and the United States. Canada , second largest country in the world in area after Russia , occupying roughly the northern two-fifths of the continent of North America.

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Introduction Traditional culture patterns Ethos Territorial organization Settlement and housing Production and technology Property and social stratification Family and kinship relations Socialization of children Religious beliefs Cultural continuity and change.

Adaptations to local environments

Edit Mode. American Subarctic peoples. Tips For Editing. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Moltke, N. Grarup, F. Racimo, P. Bjerregaard, M. Jorgensen, T. Korneliussen, P. Gerbault, L. Skotte, A. Linneberg, C. Christensen, I. Brandslund, T. Jorgensen, E. Huerta-Sanchez, E. Schmidt, O. Pedersen, T. Hansen, A.