Just as in most applications, each patent may submit more than one IPC.
This technology and its applications are related to different areas of science and technology, such as dentistry, chemistry or pharmacology. The aim of identifying these codes is to create a specific tool for search and retrieval of documents. The keywords related to the search strategy are listed in Figure 1 , which include terms related to dentistry and dental materials located in the MeSH PubMed and adapted for other databases.
Filtering tools that were related to dental materials, as well as terms for each type of material and dental specialty, were used to optimize the search for potentially relevant papers. After the identification of papers in the databases related to dentistry, they were analyzed in order to include only studies of dental materials science.
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Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of all documents. Initially, any study related to dentistry was included. The exclusion criteria were the following: literature reviews, case reports, case series; studies in a language different from Portuguese, English and Spanish; and patents of dental equipment. Those appearing to meet the inclusion criteria or for which there were insufficient data in the title and abstract to make a clear decision were selected for analysis of the full document. Any disagreement regarding the eligibility of included studies was resolved through discussion and consensus or by a third reviewer.
Data were extracted using filtering tools and a standardized form in Microsoft Office Excel software Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States , in which the descriptive and quantitative analyses were performed. Additionally, the Brazilian scientific production was analyzed in order to obtain an overview of the impact on the publications related to dental materials over the past 50 years.
A total of 1,, potentially relevant records were identified from all databases Figure 2. After filtering and screening, , studies related to dental materials were included in this review.
Regarding patents deposited by Brazil, potentially relevant documents were initially screened. After screening all documents, 53 patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Figure 3B demonstrates an annual increase in published papers related to this field, with a similar increase observed in Brazil. The most-cited papers with Brazilian affiliations were from Sano, et al.
Regarding the material category Figure 6 , most papers published in the last 50 years were related to dental implants 13, papers , dental alloys 6, papers , dental porcelain 5, papers , and synthetic resins 5, papers. Furthermore, dental implants 1, papers , synthetic resins papers , dental cements papers , dental alloys papers , and dental adhesives papers were the main dental materials studied in Brazil. However, the most-patented types of material were dental alloys 11 patents , followed by dental implants 8 patents and composite resins 7 patents.
Considering dental material field, the number of patents applications published in Brazil was smaller than the number of scientific papers published. Besides, dental prostheses 23, papers , implantology 16, papers , and operative dentistry 11, were the dental specialties that most often appeared in papers about dental materials published Figure 7. The number between brackets represents patents published throughout the world, Brazil as affiliation country of the papers, and patents from Brazil, respectively.
The main focus for dentistry will continue to be preserving and improving oral health through prevention of oral diseases, as well as the rehabilitation of lost or damaged hard and soft tissues 4 , which can be made by using synthetic materials or a tissue engineering approach. Our study demonstrated the presence of the dental materials field in different specialties.
As science is in constant evolution, new techniques and materials are transforming many dental specialties in potential areas of entrepreneurship in order to create new fields of work for dentists 4. In this context, it could be demonstrated that the publication of dental materials is not only restricted to specialized human resources, but also to several specialties such as implantology, dental prosthesis, and operative dentistry.
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In addition, the results demonstrated the significant scientific participation of Brazilian production in the world scenario. In this sense, the presence of laboratories with resources for physicochemical methods and the low-cost investments when compared with biological and molecular sciences can be related to the remarkable presence of studies directly or indirectly involving the investigations of dental materials.
Besides, the great number of undergraduate and post-graduate students that work as part of scientific projects related to dental materials is another possible explanation. In fact, the Brazilian group was in second place in the number of papers presented at meetings of the Academy of Dental Materials ADM in However, it is unclear if there is a relationship between the number of published articles and studies presented in congress, meetings or conference. It was shown that in Brazil, dental implants, synthetic resins, dental cements, dental alloys, and dental adhesives were the dental materials most studied over the last 50 years.
Despite the great advances in dental materials during this period, current challenges, such as longevity of dental materials, shrinkage stress, environmental issues e. Although significant advances occurred with synthetic materials, the best substitute for an organ or damaged tissue is the actual organ or tissue In this context, significant efforts have arisen in previous decades regarding tissue engineering, which will probably represent a progressive revolution in clinical treatments that require synthetic materials, considering that such treatments will require bioactive materials, stem cells and growth factors for regenerative approaches Since dental materials have been shown to be important for scientific and technological development in different areas of dentistry, the concern is the decrease in the development of new tailor-made biomaterials for dentistry.
However, the evolution in the Brazilian scientific production seems to have followed the annual evolution of the world scientific production in recent decades. The scientific and technological development in dentistry increases the complexity of the area and requires a professional with the competence to deal with a large number of factors, including the knowledge to work with different categories of materials that are already widely studied in Brazil such as dental implants, synthetic resins and dental cements.
Professionals with knowledge in dental materials science can magnify their labor market opportunities, as in research and development institutions, or even in dental industries, being a sector with a potential to be exploited by dentists.
Furthermore, dental materials are a science intimately linked not only to evaluating the performance of materials, but also to the development of new and better products for the dental market, which involves technologies protected by patents. The intellectual property rights protect the external exploitation of knowledge used for the development of products and innovations 3.
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