Between and , more black people were lynched in Mississippi than in any other state. Tools and necessities were advanced against the return on the crop, which was determined by the employer. When farmers were deemed to be in debt—and they often were—the negative balance was then carried over to the next season. A man or woman who protested this arrangement did so at the risk of grave injury or death. Well into the 20th century, black people spoke of their flight from Mississippi in much the same manner as their runagate ancestors had.
In her book, The Warmth of Other Suns , Isabel Wilkerson tells the story of Eddie Earvin, a spinach picker who fled Mississippi in , after being made to work at gunpoint. The elder Ross could not read. He did not have a lawyer. He did not know anyone at the local courthouse. He could not expect the police to be impartial.
Effectively, the Ross family had no way to contest the claim and no protection under the law. The authorities seized the land. They seized the buggy. They took the cows, hogs, and mules. And so for the upkeep of separate but equal, the entire Ross family was reduced to sharecropping. This was hardly unusual. In , the Associated Press published a three-part investigation into the theft of black-owned land stretching back to the antebellum period.
The series documented some victims and 24, acres of land valued at tens of millions of dollars. The land was taken through means ranging from legal chicanery to terrorism. Clyde Ross was a smart child. His teacher thought he should attend a more challenging school. There was very little support for educating black people in Mississippi.
But Julius Rosenwald, a part owner of Sears, Roebuck, had begun an ambitious effort to build schools for black children throughout the South. It was too far for Ross to walk and get back in time to work in the fields. Local white children had a school bus.
Clyde Ross did not, and thus lost the chance to better his education. Then, when Ross was 10 years old, a group of white men demanded his only childhood possession—the horse with the red coat. And they took him. Put him on the racetrack. The losses mounted. Landowners were supposed to split the profits from the cotton fields with sharecroppers. But bales would often disappear during the count, or the split might be altered on a whim. If cotton was selling for 50 cents a pound, the Ross family might get 15 cents, or only five.
She ordered the suit by mail. The mailman arrived with the suit. The Rosses could not pay. The suit was sent back. Clyde Ross did not go to the church program. It was in these early years that Ross began to understand himself as an American—he did not live under the blind decree of justice, but under the heel of a regime that elevated armed robbery to a governing principle.
He thought about fighting. Clyde Ross grew. He was drafted into the Army. The draft officials offered him an exemption if he stayed home and worked. He preferred to take his chances with war. He was stationed in California. He found that he could go into stores without being bothered. He could walk the streets without being harassed. He could go into a restaurant and receive service. Ross was shipped off to Guam. He fought in World War II to save the world from tyranny.
But when he returned to Clarksdale, he found that tyranny had followed him home. This was , eight years before Mississippi lynched Emmett Till and tossed his broken body into the Tallahatchie River. The Great Migration, a mass exodus of 6 million African Americans that spanned most of the 20th century, was now in its second wave. The black pilgrims did not journey north simply seeking better wages and work, or bright lights and big adventures.
They were fleeing the acquisitive warlords of the South. They were seeking the protection of the law. Clyde Ross was among them. He made a stable wage. He married. He had children. His paycheck was his own. No Klansmen stripped him of the vote. When he walked down the street, he did not have to move because a white man was walking past. He did not have to take off his hat or avert his gaze. His journey from peonage to full citizenship seemed near-complete. Only one item was missing—a home, that final badge of entry into the sacred order of the American middle class of the Eisenhower years.
The community was anchored by the sprawling Sears, Roebuck headquarters. But out in the tall grass, highwaymen, nefarious as any Clarksdale kleptocrat, were lying in wait. Three months after Clyde Ross moved into his house, the boiler blew out. His payments were made to the seller, not the bank. And Ross had not signed a normal mortgage. In a contract sale, the seller kept the deed until the contract was paid in full—and, unlike with a normal mortgage, Ross would acquire no equity in the meantime.
The men who peddled contracts in North Lawndale would sell homes at inflated prices and then evict families who could not pay—taking their down payment and their monthly installments as profit. Ross had tried to get a legitimate mortgage in another neighborhood, but was told by a loan officer that there was no financing available. The truth was that there was no financing for people like Clyde Ross. From the s through the s, black people across the country were largely cut out of the legitimate home-mortgage market through means both legal and extralegal. Their efforts were buttressed by the federal government.
In , Congress created the Federal Housing Administration. The FHA insured private mortgages, causing a drop in interest rates and a decline in the size of the down payment required to buy a house. But an insured mortgage was not a possibility for Clyde Ross. The FHA had adopted a system of maps that rated neighborhoods according to their perceived stability.
They were colored in red. Neither the percentage of black people living there nor their social class mattered. Black people were viewed as a contagion. Redlining went beyond FHA-backed loans and spread to the entire mortgage industry, which was already rife with racism, excluding black people from most legitimate means of obtaining a mortgage.
The devastating effects are cogently outlined by Melvin L. Oliver and Thomas M. In Chicago and across the country, whites looking to achieve the American dream could rely on a legitimate credit system backed by the government. Blacks were herded into the sights of unscrupulous lenders who took them for money and for sport. The kill was profitable.
During this period, according to one estimate, 85 percent of all black home buyers who bought in Chicago bought on contract. Clyde Ross still lives there. He still owns his home. He is 91, and the emblems of survival are all around him—awards for service in his community, pictures of his children in cap and gown. But when I asked him about his home in North Lawndale, I heard only anarchy.
He was sitting at his dining-room table. His glasses were as thick as his Clarksdale drawl. So how dumb am I? I just left this mess. I just left no laws. And no regard. And then I come here and get cheated wide open. You could fall through the cracks easy fighting these white people. And no law. But fight Clyde Ross did. Contract sellers used every tool at their disposal to pilfer from their clients.
They scared white residents into selling low. They presented themselves as real-estate brokers, when in fact they were the owners. They guided their clients to lawyers who were in on the scheme. The Contract Buyers League fought back. They refused to pay their installments, instead holding monthly payments in an escrow account.
Ross and the Contract Buyers League were no longer appealing to the government simply for equality. They were no longer fleeing in hopes of a better deal elsewhere. They were charging society with a crime against their community. They wanted the crime publicly ruled as such.
And they wanted restitution for the great injury brought upon them by said offenders. In , Clyde Ross and the Contract Buyers League were no longer simply seeking the protection of the law. They were seeking reparations. A ccording to the most-recent statistics , North Lawndale is now on the wrong end of virtually every socioeconomic indicator.
In its population was , Today it is 36, The neighborhood is 92 percent black. Its homicide rate is 45 per ,—triple the rate of the city as a whole. The infant-mortality rate is 14 per 1,—more than twice the national average. Forty-five percent of all households are on food stamps—nearly three times the rate of the city at large. Sears, Roebuck left the neighborhood in , taking 1, jobs with it. North Lawndale is an extreme portrait of the trends that ail black Chicago. Such is the magnitude of these ailments that it can be said that blacks and whites do not inhabit the same city.
When the Harvard sociologist Robert J. Sampson examined incarceration rates in Chicago in his book, Great American City , he found that a black neighborhood with one of the highest incarceration rates West Garfield Park had a rate more than 40 times as high as the white neighborhood with the highest rate Clearing.
The lives of black Americans are better than they were half a century ago. The humiliation of Whites Only signs are gone. Rates of black poverty have decreased.
Black teen-pregnancy rates are at record lows—and the gap between black and white teen-pregnancy rates has shrunk significantly. But such progress rests on a shaky foundation, and fault lines are everywhere. The income gap between black and white households is roughly the same today as it was in Patrick Sharkey, a sociologist at New York University, studied children born from through and found that 4 percent of whites and 62 percent of blacks across America had been raised in poor neighborhoods. A generation later, the same study showed, virtually nothing had changed.
And whereas whites born into affluent neighborhoods tended to remain in affluent neighborhoods, blacks tended to fall out of them. This is not surprising. Black families, regardless of income, are significantly less wealthy than white families. The Pew Research Center estimates that white households are worth roughly 20 times as much as black households, and that whereas only 15 percent of whites have zero or negative wealth, more than a third of blacks do.
Effectively, the black family in America is working without a safety net. When financial calamity strikes—a medical emergency, divorce, job loss—the fall is precipitous. And just as black families of all incomes remain handicapped by a lack of wealth, so too do they remain handicapped by their restricted choice of neighborhood. Black people with upper-middle-class incomes do not generally live in upper-middle-class neighborhoods. The implications are chilling. As a rule, poor black people do not work their way out of the ghetto—and those who do often face the horror of watching their children and grandchildren tumble back.
Even seeming evidence of progress withers under harsh light. In , the Manhattan Institute cheerily noted that segregation had declined since the s. And yet African Americans still remained—by far—the most segregated ethnic group in the country. With segregation, with the isolation of the injured and the robbed, comes the concentration of disadvantage. An unsegregated America might see poverty, and all its effects, spread across the country with no particular bias toward skin color. Instead, the concentration of poverty has been paired with a concentration of melanin. The resulting conflagration has been devastating.
One thread of thinking in the African American community holds that these depressing numbers partially stem from cultural pathologies that can be altered through individual grit and exceptionally good behavior. It is also wrong. The kind of trenchant racism to which black people have persistently been subjected can never be defeated by making its victims more respectable.
The essence of American racism is disrespect. And in the wake of the grim numbers, we see the grim inheritance. The suit dragged on until , when the league lost a jury trial. Securing the equal protection of the law proved hard; securing reparations proved impossible. Board of Education and all that nonsense. The Supreme Court seems to share that sentiment. The past two decades have witnessed a rollback of the progressive legislation of the s. Liberals have found themselves on the defensive. In , when Barack Obama was a candidate for president, he was asked whether his daughters—Malia and Sasha—should benefit from affirmative action.
He answered in the negative. The exchange rested upon an erroneous comparison of the average American white family and the exceptional first family. In the contest of upward mobility, Barack and Michelle Obama have won. But that comparison is incomplete. The more telling question is how they compare with Jenna and Barbara Bush—the products of many generations of privilege, not just one.
In , the freedwoman Belinda Royall petitioned the commonwealth of Massachusetts for reparations. Belinda had been born in modern-day Ghana. She was kidnapped as a child and sold into slavery. She endured the Middle Passage and 50 years of enslavement at the hands of Isaac Royall and his son. But the junior Royall, a British loyalist, fled the country during the Revolution. Belinda, now free after half a century of labor, beseeched the nascent Massachusetts legislature:.
Belinda Royall was granted a pension of 15 pounds and 12 shillings, to be paid out of the estate of Isaac Royall—one of the earliest successful attempts to petition for reparations. At the time, black people in America had endured more than years of enslavement, and the idea that they might be owed something in return was, if not the national consensus, at least not outrageous. As the historian Roy E. Finkenbine has documented, at the dawn of this country, black reparations were actively considered and often effected.
In his book Forever Free , Eric Foner recounts the story of a disgruntled planter reprimanding a freedman loafing on the job:. In the 20th century, the cause of reparations was taken up by a diverse cast that included the Confederate veteran Walter R. Charles J. Ogletree Jr. But while the people advocating reparations have changed over time, the response from the country has remained virtually the same. Not exactly.
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Having been enslaved for years, black people were not left to their own devices. They were terrorized. In the Deep South, a second slavery ruled. Zechariah Then he shall answer, Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends Acts Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into Heaven? This same Jesus , which is taken up from you into Heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into Heaven Paul ended chapter 4 as if it were a sworn affidavit, testifying to the evidence he saw.
In John , within the space of three short verses, John wrote of Jesus' burial linen clothes three distinct times. Three seperate times John kept pointing to the Shroud in those 3 short verses.
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It would have sufficed had John only written it once. For what other purpose would John repeatedly write about the linen clothes in 3 consecutive verses if he wasn't trying to bring it to our attention? Another curious tidbit was that in John , John referred to the Shroud as the linen clothes in the plural and not in the singular. But rather than refer to the cloth singularly, John's words suggested he had seen two things, which, in a sense, were divided but somehow connected. The images of Jesus' body, both the front and rear sides, were transferred onto the surface of the Shroud, as if a divine power had created a scanned image without benefit of technology.
In John , John wrote he and Peter saw the linen clothes laying in the tomb where Jesus' body had been. Note how John wrote in the plural when he wrote, linen clothes and not just linen cloth. This had to be the reason why John consistantly referred to them as the linen clothes and not just the linen cloth in three straight, short verses.
Not surprisingly, the shroud posed a grave danger for the disciples of Jesus by way of further persecution. Hushed rumors about the shroud's existence must have quietly circulated among believers at Corinth. Yet Paul steadfastly assured them of the truth. We Have a Treasure in an Earthen Vessel. In cleverly crafted prose, Paul skillfully weaved words of imagery , in a hidden pattern of repetitive codes, confirming he had witnessed the image on Jesus' shroud, as did all of the disciples. However, Christ's disciples did not physically describe the Shroud image so much as they referenced it in words that would not have betrayed the medium in which it existed, a burial cloth.
To acheive this, Jesus' followers used the spy craft of steganography in order to broadcast this secret message. But most Christians have never read the Bible through the eyes of an investigator, code breaker or cryptanalyst. Paul's message was designed to be understood by Christians but not by his enemies, whose attempts at spying involved intercepting such letters. In 2nd Timothy , Paul told Timothy to bring 'the cloak ' with him. Paul did not say to bring, 'My cloak' but the cloak.
Was it possible the Shroud could have been folded enough times, as to be hidden within a long cloak? While their choice of words implied a spiritual innuendo, few realized their implication signified a material object, the Shroud.
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Such an admission in writing would have been equal to a signed confession. The disciples would have been crucified before the Christian church could take root. Once decoded, the real message by Paul was: I have a transferred figure. The significance of the disciples' coyly written words would be lost to Christ's enemies who would remain ignorant to the truth because the Shroud's existence was invisible to them. How could they grasp something that had been hid from them? As Paul wrote, the minds of them who believed not in Jesus Christ were blinded by Satan. The disciples conveyed their sense of sight when writing of Christ's image, as if they were looking at the Shroud in their minds' eye when writing of Jesus' image.
And, it was not some delusion of their imaginations. The Poor Clare Nuns sewed patches of new cloth to cover scorched holes in the Shroud in The carbon dating attempts, in the final analysis, combined both old and new material of the Shroud when the tests were carried out. Shroud fibers from the 1st century had been intentionally carbon dated with fibers from the repair job of the Shroud, whereby cotton was weaved into the much older flax material of the Shroud.
Regarding Jesus' thoughts about not refilling old wine bottles or wine skins with new wine because it would ruin the flavor of the new wine, that part of the parable may have alluded to the Shroud fibers being soaked, washed and rinsed with strong chemicals in preparation for the carbon dating tests in It was not until when the same samples of the Shroud, which had been carbon dated in , were proven under microscopic examination by physicist Ray Rogers, to contain an usual blend of flax and cotton that had been intricately joined together during a reweaving of an area damaged by fire.
Under the microscopic, Rogers showed that the Shroud sample that was carbon dated in actually consisted of not 1 type of cloth but 2 different types of cloth. The fiberous ends of these cloths were joined together undetectably with two different weave patterns. Such an unusal distinction in the two patterns clearly showed an uneven trajectory, contrary to one another. Their weave patterns in the area of the Shroud sampled for carbon dating were not pointed in a uniform direction as a solid piece of cloth with one weave pattern would normally be. The carbon date tests of sought to hide these aspects from the public since their secret plan was aimed all along at debunking the Shroud.
It has since been learned that the newer cloth from the repair job was also dyed to match the Shroud's color, making it impossible to see the microscopic differences with the naked eye that the carbon date tests sought so successfully to suppress. Even if the Shroud samples had been individually separated from one another, the tests would still be deemed unreliable because of microscopic cross-contamination between the two materials with the differences in age.
The words of Jesus that became a prophecy was long thought to be merely a parable, but J. Watts believes this parable by Jesus was not only a prophecy but a Shroud Code as well. In Shroud Codes of the Bible, J. It was a Shroud Code given by Christ Himself in the four gospels, while at the same time, being a parable about spiritual misalignment.
Nowhere else in the New Testament were there any examples of Christ giving household tips in upholstery or garment repairs or wine bottling methods. Theologians have long believed this parable about garment patching and new wine had been written in the gospels to illustrate how a new spiritual faith would not blend in with an older type of spirituality. And yet the disciples never explained Christ's motivation for relating this parable.
Strangely, it was not so much the clergy as it was the secular-minded people from the world of science which kept the Shroud in the public eye. Pete Schumacher, Dr. Petrus Soons achieved by proving the Shroud is a virtual 3-D hologram, encoded with multi- dimensional properties, not found in photographs or paintings. The 3D images of the Shroud that Dr. Soons recreated restored the full bodily image of Christ, prior to the way it looked before , removing the scorch marks caused by fire, which made it impossible to appreciate the full spectrum of the Shroud.
In , cloth patches were sewn over the gaping holes in the shroud, though the searing scorch marks that covered the upper arms of Jesus r emained emblazoned like frozen flames of fire. This money was donated by an anonymous source, whose intent was obvious from the start, to dilute faith in Jesus by diluting belief in the Shroud, though this was not admitted publicly since it was public perception of the Shroud they were trying to alter, to promote atheism. Scientific carbon dating equipment costs a fortune. Did the companies who manufactor such equipment pay the one million pound reward to debunk the Shroud to help sell their carbon testing equipment to universities across the world?
Didn't those companies, who remained in the shadows, have the most to gain by this deception? The Soviets were known to spend millions of dollars for various types of propaganda ruses, in efforts to combat religion. Some conspiracy theorists suspect the Communists wanted to propegate evolution through carbon dating, which would allow carbon dating proponents the chance to further their cause in universities across the Soviet Bloc while being rewarded financially. Why did Dr. This repair job protected the shroud, creating a new perimeter around it, filled the gaping holes left by the fire and helped to bridge some seams together that came apart or were destroyed.
It is explained in this film that the Shroud itself did not consist of cotton but flaxseed material. See the photo link above in the center column for the Rogers DVD. Note the scriptures beneath the professors' photo in the right hand column where they sit in front of a blackboard. He fulfilled Isaiah Jesus' secret disciple, the wealthy attorney, Joseph of Arimathea, played a key role in Bible prophecy. Did Joseph provide the bitter tasting hyssop for Jesus to sip, possibly hastening his death, fulfilling Psalm ?
Was the hyssop tainted with a lethal poison? Why did Jesus die right after tasting it? Was God merciful to his Son, sparing him further agony so his legs would not be broken as Psalm foretold since Christ was crucified for six hours prior to the Passover? Did Joseph of Arimathea literally carry out a mercy killing to save Jesus from further pain but in the process, also inadvertantly ensure Christ's body would be inside the tomb, in time to rendevouz with the Resurrection that was foretold? We are about to witness the literal fulfillment of the most horrendous prophecies ever recorded in the Bible but most are unaware of this, remaining ignorant of the dangers ahead.
Some say prophecy is too difficult to comprehend. But if Bible prophecies were never meant to be understood, then to what end did God reveal them? Then the seals would be broken or decoded from scriptures, signaling a sequential chain of God's judgements against mankind. This period is called the Great Tribulation in the Book of Revelation. Recent events in the world provide strong indications the countdown has started. This is the stark reality about these prophecies.
They are as plain as day, having not been white washed nor sugar coated to sound pleasing. Many well known Bible prophecy authors claim that the next prophecy to be fulfilled will be the rapture of the church when Christ snatches His believers up to Heaven. How will they survive persecution by the Antichrist during the tribulation before Christ returns? Should we believe our faith will never be tested? Many Christians who bought into the Left Behind myth want it both ways. On the one hand, they believe a rapture will occur before the Antichrist arrives. They cling to the idea of being saved from a time of calamity by believing a myth.
Are we in the west so confident to assume our faith will not be tested in some dire way? Shocked Christians in the west will sooner or later realize their faith in Christ will indeed be tested, while others will still refuse to face reality. It will happen in incremental stages, worsening as time goes by, according to the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation.
The Left Behind authors promote the pre-Trib rapture theory because it sounds like the perfect escape hatch without our faith truly being tested. Begin prepping ASAP! Pre-Trib Rapture teachers base their beliefs on 1st Thessalonians But if you also examine 2nd Thessalonians , it warns of a falling away of many believers whom false teachers will deceive, effectively blinding them to the perils ahead, tragically catching them unaware.
Does Rev. Will those who have the seal of God in their foreheads also wear green garments to better protect themselves against attack from these locusts? Could a color provide safety? Moses told the Jews to wipe lamb's blood on their doorposts on the night of Passover to save their firstborn. Prosperity preachers will make them think the Mark they will be confronted with will not be the same Mark that John wrote of in Revelation but it will be. Yet, in Revelation , Christ warns his true believers He comes as a thief at that stage of the tribulation. Jesus warns these believers to keep their garments of faith on.
It should be a simple courier job, but with demons nothing is simple. Sam reluctantly attempts to help her brother, trying not antagonize the vampires or the demon gunning for him, all while chafing to comply with the restrictions her angel has placed on her as a bound demon. Sam has become buried in angelic bureaucracy, saddled with a succubus house guest, and is fighting off a never-ending slew of demon hit-men.
But imps can never stay out of trouble for long. Demon corpses have been found drained of all energy, their spirit selves ripped clean from their bodies. But is a devouring spirit really the killer, or is there more to the deaths than either Sam or Gregory suspect? The ancient demon, Ahriman is holding her to the terms and conditions of the breeding contract she signed — and one thousand years under his claw is looking to be the most terrifying thing in all of Hel. She sure as heck didn't want these feathery angel wings permanently affixed to her back— although those have their perks.
She especially doesn't want all the extra projects the Ruling Council keeps dumping on her plate.
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Tricked into protecting a pregnant woman, Sam discovers that her hasty vow came with a whole lot of strings attached — strings that make her question her trust in Gregory. As if that weren't enough chaos for an imp, the angels finally find proof that werewolves are Nephilim - the descendants of fallen angels. An entire race is facing extinction and their only hope for salvation is an angel from Hel. But Gregory also needs her help. Interdimensional rifts are opening, spilling supernatural creatures into the world of the humans.
Locating and closing the gateways takes a team of two — an angel and a demon. But the gem has a dark power — one that could shatter any hope of peace between heaven and hell. Which task takes priority? Sam is at a crossroads, where either choice leads to a dark future.