From Script to Print. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, Contini, Gianfranco. Un'idea di Dante. Torino: Einaudi, La corrispondenza poetica di Dante Alighieri e Giovanni del Virgilio. A cura di E. Bolisani e M. Firenze: Olschki, De Kerckhove. Derrick, and Amilcare A. McLuhan e la metamorfosi dell'uomo. Roma: Bulzoni, Del Lungo, Isidoro. Dell'esilio di Dante. Firenze: Le Monnier, Eco, Umberto. Sugli specchi e altri saggi. Milano: Bompiani, Dalla periferia dell'Impero. The Role of the Reader. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, Fiske, John.
Television Culture. London and New York: Methuen, Fiske, John, and John Hartley. Reading Television. Fournival, Richard de. A cura di Cesare Segre. Milano: Ricciardi, Greenaway, Peter, and Tom Phillips, dirs. The Lustful. Sophie Balhetchet. Channel Four Television Ltd.
Preface to Plato. Cambridge, Mass. Hodge, Bob, and David Tripp. Children and Television: A Semiotic Approach. Stanford: Stanford University Press, Hollander, Robert. Inferno Prod, and dir. Michael Edmunds. University of Toronto Media Centre. Toronto, Forma ed evento nella Divina Commedia. Carole Slade. Inferno 5. Kolve, V. Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative. Stanford: Stanford Univer- sity Press, McLuhan, Marshall.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: New American Library, McLuhan, Marshall and Eric. Laws of the Media: The New Science. Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. Palmer, Patricia. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, Parodi, Marco, dir. Patrizia Todaro. Academic Co-ordinator Giorgio Petrocchi. Dipartimento Scuola Educazione. RAI TV. Petrarca, Francesco. In Prose. A cura di G. Martellotti et al. Milano- Napoli: Ricciardi, Petrocchi, Giorgio. Per conoscere Dante e La Divina Commedia. Torino: Nuova ERI, Phillips, Tom, trans, and illus.
Dante's Inferno. London: Thames Hudson, Placido, Beniamino. Poggioli, Renato. Porro, Gabriele. Dame, Television, and Education 33 Russo. The Responsive Chord. Garden City. Tubingen: Niemeyer, Vallone, Aldo. Zumthor, Paul. Teodolinda Barolini Detheologizing Dante For a "New Formalism" in Dante Studies In his capital and underutilized "Dante profeta," published in , Bruno Nardi threw down a criticai gauntlet, and challenged us to look at the Commedia not through a glass darkly, but face to face.
Moreover, Nardi persists in asking the inelegant questions that are the logical consequence of his position, not only "Si deve dunque credere colle donniccio- le di Verona, che Dante scendesse davvero all'Inferno, e davvero salisse all'Empireo? In this essay I will trace, in broad outline, the history of our recent handling of what I take to be the fundamental question for all readers of Dante's poem: How are we to respond to the poet's insistence that he is telling us the truth?
Logically prior to this query stands another that we cannot answer, but on which we may speculate: Did Dante himself believe in the literal truth of those things for which he claims literal truth? In the wake of the American querelle regarding the allegory of poets versus the allegory of theologians, we seem to have reached an impasse in which the question of Dante's truth claims has been effectively put to one side, begged by some of us, ignored by oth- ers, treated as settled by many.
This is not to say that the issue is never raised; in our attempts to understand the Commedia' s intertex- tuality, for instance, it is frequently touched upon. As to how we have arrived at such an impasse, I believe that a major cause has been the issue, still unresolved, of the authorship of the Epis- tle to Cangrande. The impasse has been compounded, moreover, by cultural differences that prevent adherents to essentially the same point of view from benefiting from each other's work: it is my belief that Nardi 's contributions regarding "Dante profeta" and Singleton's regarding the Commedia' s use of the allegory of theologians are es- sentially complementary.
Since Singleton's position emphasizes the validity of the literal sense as historically true, and the issue of Dante as profeta ultimately goes beyond the specific prophecies within the text to encompass the much larger problem of the poet's view of himself as a teller of truth, these two traditions are in effect parallel Detheologizing Dante 37 ways of discussing the one central issue of the poet's truth claims. They have not been viewed as such because neither side has been particularly receptive to the other's mode of framing the question.
In the United States we have tended to vex the issue of allegory as a mode, genre, or method, evolving a critical discourse regarding the allegory of the Commedia that barely refers to the text. Hence the Italian accusation that we are engaged in sterile allegorizing at the expense of the poetry — an ironic response given that our insistence on the allegory of theologians was intended to reinvest the literal sense with a poetic worth denied it by the traditional reading based on the allegory of poets.
Nor could it be said that we have given the Nardian position its due: in "Dante Theologus-Poeta," Robert Hollander chides those dantisti who "have no difficulty in under- standing that Dante claims literal truth for his poem, but then go on to make this Dante a 'prophet,' thus avoiding, as did Bruno Nardi, the way in which the poem is rooted in fourfold exegesis in the name of a single aspect of the biblical possibilities" Nardi was not so much avoiding anything as he was formulating the issue in terms that were more congenial to one who was less a literary critic than a historian and philosopher, steeped in the thirteenth century controversies between "true prophets" and "false prophets," whether these charges involve Aristotelians or Franciscans.
Indeed, if — with respect to Dante's mode of writing — we were to interrogate the Corn- media as much as we have in the past interrogated the Convivio and the Epistle to Cangrande, we would find that Nardi's way of framing the issue of the poet's truth claims is far from inappropriate. In his later "II punto sull'Epistola a Cangrande," Nardi moves from stating his case regarding Dante's claims to examining how the poet's claims have traditionally been evaded.
In other words, he formulates a theory of evasive reception. Due to its emphasis on reception, and thus on the Trecento commentators — the earliest "recipients" of record — Nardi's theory involves a shift of focus from the Commedia to the Epistle to Cangrande. Noting the accusations of heresy that were levelled at Dante, called a vessel of the devil by the Dominican Guido Vernani, and culminating in the Dominican ban of , he points out that all of Dante's early commentators among whom Nardi places the author of the expository part of the Epistle, a point to which we shall return feel obliged to protect their poet 38 Teodolinda Barolini from the charge of heresy.
The early commentators thus deflected attention from the lit- eral sense and its preposterous claims by intentionally devaluing it, equating it with the allegedly fictitious imaginings of the poet. This stratified division of the text's authorial persona along allegorical lines, with the theologian responsible for the allegorical truth that is hidden under the bella menzogna of the poet's fanciful inventions, creates a deplorable dichotomy that persists to this day, yielding critics who "pur riconoscendo a Dante la tempra di vero poeta, ne svalutano l'altissima ispirazione religiosa da cui la poesia sgorga" In Nardi's opinion, the disastrous lesson on how to protect the poet by devaluing the literal sense of his poem is first provided by the well-intentioned theologian who, he believes, is responsible for the expository section of the Epistle to Cangrande.
At this point, the parallels between Nardi and Singleton become more evident, as do the ironies inherent in our story. Nardi is as determined a defender of the literal sense of the Commedia as is Singleton; like Singleton, he is deeply aware of the significance of the Epistle to Cangrande as a hermeneutic document. But their ap- proach to the document could not be more different.
In this. Nardi took a particularly idiosyncratic stand, since — as Singleton had in fact astutely observed — it was only to be expected Detheologizing Dante 39 that attacks on the allegory of theologians as the Commedia's dom- inant mode would take the form of attacks on the authenticity of the Epistle, as indeed proved to be the case.
Although he did not lay as great a stress on the evils of this dichotomy as Nardi, Singleton too was aware of it as a problem, and indeed viewed the matter in a Nardian focus that was not passed on to his heirs, who have instead preserved the dichotomy and privileged the theologus — precisely as Italian critics, who have done the opposite, have accused them of doing. Both symptom and cause of the deadlock we have reached with respect to the issue of Dante's truth claims a formulation that I pre- fer, in the interests both of clarity and a more ecumenical approach to Dante studies, to either its allegorical or prophetic precursor are the acrimony and inflexibility displayed by those who, unwittingly, reflect the old dichotomy in extreme form: as Singleton's heirs dig ever more deeply into the cultural and theological humus from which the Commedia grows, they make the poet appear more and more a theologian, unleashing a backlash from those who would have us remember that he is a poet.
The linking of the Epistle to the issue of the Commedia' s mode of signifying has had the un- fortunate effect of allowing the question of the Epistle's authorship to seem decisive for our reading of the poem. This skewing of the critical discourse is implicit in Singleton's contribution, which gives the impression of being most vulnerable in its reliance on the Epistle, and is explicit in Nardi. The issue of the Epistle's authorship has distracted us from the text we are trying to understand and has bred unnecessary confusion.
Thus, Nardi' s principal antagonist in the debate over the paternity of the Epistle was Francesco Mazzoni, a scholar who is far from a sup- porter of the "prophetic" reading of the Commedia; it is ironic that Nardi and Mazzoni should respond to the Epistle in the same way, as in no way inimical to the fictitiousness of the poem it glosses. To complicate matters, in "La 'mirabile visione' di Dante e l'Epistola a Cangrande," Giorgio Padoan entered the fray on Mazzoni 's side, in that he undertakes to defend the authenticity of the entire Epistle, but in Nardi 's cause:" Nardi denies the authenticity of the second part of the Epistle because he believes that it promotes the idea of the Commedia as mere fictio; Padoan sustains the Epistle's authen- ticity because he believes that exactly the opposite is true, i.
In contrast to other commentaries on the opening of the Paradiso, which re- spond to the first canto's audacious patterning of the poet's ascent on St. Even more telling are the authentic biblical visions invoked by the Epistle as models for the Commedia, "tre esempi biblici di visioni ancora una volta realmente avvenute: 1 il raptus al cielo di S. Paolo; 2 la visione che S. Pietro, S. Giacomo e S. Gio- vanni ebbero della trasfigurazione di Cristo; 3 la visione della gloria di Dio avuta da Ezechiele" 44 , examples that in turn are buttressed with references to three authorities on visionary experience, Richard of St.
Victor, St. Bernard, and St. Why is it that this question, articulated more than twenty years ago, whose implications broach represen- tational concerns on the one hand and authorial intentionality on the other, still haunts us today? As I have suggested, one of the reasons that Padoan's compelling arguments have not been able to penetrate and focus critical thought as fully as their author would have wished is their connection to the Epistle; to the extent that his arguments engage the Epistle more than the Commedia, and to the extent that they are presented in the context of a defense of the Epistle's Dantesque authorship, they are the more easily shrugged off by those not willing to listen.
A case in point is a recent book by Peter Dronke, in which the author like Padoan a student of Nardi's inveighs against the ex- egetical approach to which we have been giving the label allegory of poets, which he believes ill serves the Commedia' s imaginative power. I believe it is their kind of claim that Dante makes" However, he argues against Dante's penning of the Epistle, whose author he considers an inept allegorist, and hence against Padoan;'" moreover, he lumps Sin- gleton and Hollander among that "majority of scholars since Croce [who] have continued to think of the Commedia in terms of fiction" , an assessment that hardly does justice to their positions or strengthens the cause in which he is fighting.
Dronke's book, which also conflates Dante's prophetic claims with those of Alanus, without acknowledging that a major tenet of Nardi's supporters has been the distance between Dante and those poets for whom the literal sense is explicitly less important than the allegorical, illustrates the confusion to which our lack of critical consensus has led.
I suggested earlier that, if we were to interrogate the Commedia as we have the Convivio or the Epistle, we would find support for both Nardi and Singleton. Any metatextual study of the Commedia has to come to terms with the poet as truth-teller, and thus with "Dante profeta" in the larger sense. By the same token, I am convinced that the Commedia' s imitation of God's way of writing, in defiance of all theological protocol, does not require the Epistle to Cangrande or any other external document for its substantiation; the poem itself furnishes sufficient and incon- trovertible evidence of how it wants to be read.
By this I do not mean to say that I find the Epistle uninteresting; for the record, my sense of it is that it is Dante's. But I do mean to say that its author- ship, were the matter one day to be decided against Dante, need not in any way impinge on our reading of the Commedia. The distance between Nardi and Singleton regards not so much their ideas on how the poem intends to be received as their response to the second of my initial queries; with respect to Dante's view of himself, Singleton presents a less "naive" persona than Nardi, hew- ing more closely to the Crocean path: "But to attribute to a critical Detheologizing Dante 43 and reflective Dante the belief that he was another Aeneas or an- other St.
Paul is simply to unload on him our own disinclination to face the myth directly and to understand it" In this matter, I follow the Nardian school of thought, which I believe in fact "faces the myth more directly"; thus, my approval for Singleton's famous formula that "the fiction of the Divine Comedy is that it is not a fiction" 62 does not extend to the suggestion that Dante himself thought his poem a fiction.
What Singleton left veiled is elabo- rated by Hollander, who grafts onto Singleton's perhaps deliberate reticence an ironic poet who "creates a fiction which he pretends to consider not to be literally fictitious, while at the same time con- triving to share the knowledge with us that it is precisely fictional" . The phrase "nonfalse error," used to describe the ecstatic visions of the terrace of wrath, provides a means to understand Dante's own understand- ing of his achievement; not polarized as either theologus or poeta, Dante encompasses the aporias and contradictions of a prophetically inspired poem — a work that as art may be error, but that as prophecy is nonfalse — within the rigorous embrace of paradox.
In sum, I believe we must accept Dante's insistence that he is telling the truth and move on to the consequences. Therefore, al- though we must address the text's self-presentation as true, we must more fundamentally address the critical consequences of such self- presentation: to wit, the ways in which the text succeeds in presenting itself as true. In other words, the topic at hand is Dante's realism. Al- though Dante shares with other narrators the concern to authenticate his narrative, his religious pretensions make this concern particularly pressing; for as Morton Bloomfield points out in "Authenticating Re- alism and the Realism of Chaucer," while discussing the truth claims inherent in all narrative, the "basic problem of all revealed religions 44 Teodolinda Barolini is just this authentication" Bloomfield further notes that this problem is in the minds of the authors of the Bible, where it artic- ulates itself precisely in the terms that Nardi formulated in "Dante profeta": "The end of Chapter 18 of Deuteronomy frankly discusses the problem of how to distinguish true prophecy from false" This is the node at which the problems of discussing the Commedia intersect with the problems of discussing all realistic narrative: be- cause of its biblical and prophetic pretensions the Commedia poses the basic narrative issue of its truth value in aggravated form.
At the same time, however, Dante does not seek to hide the fact that he is crafting the word of God in language; he draws attention to his role as narrator in a multitude of ways, including the celebrated addresses to the reader. It is extremely relevant to our discussion that Auerbach finds in Dante's addresses to the reader the urgency of a prophet; in other words, typically, Dante has used what could have been moments of vulnerability, moments of exposed narrativ- ity, to forge his most authoritative voice.
Spitzer rejects Auerbach's insistence on prophecy in favor of a reading that puts the emphasis on mimesis, on the addresses as aids in the reader's visualization and thus in the poet's realism; tellingly, he does not see that Auerbach is able to arrive at his formulation Dante as a new prophet capable of inventing the essentially new topos of the address to the reader in the service of his prophetic vision precisely because he had so long been thinking in terms of Dantesque realism, for in Dante the prophetic stance is indissolubly wedded to the poet's concern with achieving supreme mimesis.
Only then can we see the pressures such claims exert upon a poet. One of the great problems of studying Dante is reflected in Spitzer's taking to task of Auerbach: critics, like Nardi and Auer- bach, who take the poem's pretensions seriously, are criticized for not seeing an artifact, for believing Dante too much. In fact, they are seeing the artifact most clearly, and are on the road to believing Dante least.
In fact, Dante creates a poem in which such encouragements may constitute one of its most effec- tive forms of protection. As with the addresses to the reader, Dante protects himself most when he seems most exposed; he neutralizes the betrayal of self-consciousness implicit in all narrative authen- ticating devices by making his authenticating devices outrageously inauthentic.
In other words, Gellrich con- flates what Singleton himself believes with what Singleton says that Dante wants us to believe. This occurs because of the enormous effort required to keep the two apart; one of the effects of Dante's realism — and one of its most insidious forms of self-protection — is that it causes people to think one agrees with him when one para- phrases him as all teachers of the Commedia know, it is difficult to persuade one's students otherwise.
An example of such behavior is the common defensive move we could call the collocation fallacy, whereby a critic argues that view x is not possible with regard to soul x, because if it were soul x would be located elsewhere; arguing thus, we approach the poem through the lens of its own fiction treated as dogma. One need not be a religious believer to be a narrative believer of the Commedia; as the history of the poem's reception repeatedly demonstrates, many presumably nonnaive readers have proved unable to suspend their suspension of disbelief.
The time has come for us to be more interested in how the Commedia works than in what it says; we should examine the formal structures practising what Gian Biagio Conte calls "una filologia della struttura narrativa"  that manipulate the reader so successfully that even now we are blinded, prevented by the text's fulfillment of its self-imposed goals from fully appreciating its achievements as artifact. In other words, we must detheologize our reading if we are to understand what makes the theology stick. For the final irony of our tradition of Dante exegesis is that, as a direct result of our theologus-poeta dichotomy, and frequently in the name of preserving the poetry, we have obscured its greatness by accepting uncritically its directives and its premises, its "theology.
To the extent that we hearken always to what Dante says rather than take note of what he has done, we treat him as he would have us treat him — not as a poet, but as an authority, a "theologian. My concern now is to more fully identify the workings of this strategy that would deny its own existence. Previously, I used the example of Cacciaguida, whose explanation that the pilgrim has been shown only famous souls, "anime che son di fama note," is fre- quently cited by critics; less frequently have they noted — Auerbach is one exception that comes to mind — that Cacciaguida's statement is not true.
It is important to note that these examples come from all three canticles: on the representational front the poem is neutral; in the mimetic realm collocation does not imply value, as it does in the thematic sphere. The above examples are taken from Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso to make the point that we can- not approach these issues by invoking the theological grid that we have become so accustomed to imposing on the Commedia, whereby whatever happens in hell is "bad," problematic, and whatever hap- pens in heaven is "good," problem-free.
In the instances just cited, as in so many others, we have listened to what Dante says, accepting it as true — as though he were a "theologian" — rather than looking at, and learning from, the gap that exists between what he says and what he has actually wrought. To the extent, then, that we have not dealt with the implications of Dante's claims to be a second St. Paul, a second St. John, we have not put ourselves in a position to fully grasp the genius of his poetry — of its ability to construct a textual metaphysics so enveloping that it prevents us from analyzing the conditions that give rise to the illusion that such a metaphysics is possible.
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In "The Irreducible Dove," Singleton 48 Teodolinda Barolini answers the charges of critics who fear that his beliefs with regard to Dante's allegory put him "in danger of succumbing so completely to the illusion of reality in Dante's poem as to forget that it is illusion" Although he did not realize it, preferring as he did to think in terms of restoring a medieval forma mentis that authorized such illusion, and thus being "allowed to recover from the Renaissance, if only for a brief reader's moment" , Singleton's attempt to locate the source of the illusion in the fiction that pretends it is not a fiction is a first step to dismantling the Commedia'' s textual metaphysics.
His critics, precisely in proportion to their level-headed and rational refusal to succumb to a preposterous theory about a preposterous claim, reveal themselves to be the more fully duped by an author whose cunning they have not begun to penetrate. We must work to show how the illusion is constructed, forged, made — by a man who is precisely, after all, "only" a fabbro, a maker Before reach- ing this concluding generality.
To study Dante's handling of his precur- sors is necessarily to study his truth claims, since he consistently formulates the difference between his poetry and that of his predecessors in terms of truth versus falsehood. All the more reason, therefore, considering the current interest in Dante's intertextuality, to reexamine our underlying suppositions regarding his mode of signifying.
Among such ves- sels is the author of the Commedia: "Inter alia vero talia sua [i. The poetry of the Corn- media is likened to the Boethian sirens, who lead away from truth with their "dulcibus cantibus" — a fascinating alignment in light of the unmasked siren of Purgatorio This, in all consistency, was bound to occur" See, for instance, Hollander's rebuttal of Scott on this issue 55 n.
Dante's Fearful Art of Justice, a work which shows little appreciation for the ways in which poetry undermines theological certitude see my review in Renaissance Quarterly 38 : Prolegomena alia Divina Commedia. Sarolli's own emphasis on the esoteric may have helped obscure the general importance of his sense of Dante as a prophetic poet.
More fre- quently, the presence of fictivus has been used to bolster the anti-Singletonians Hollander 64 n. The same logical necessity leads to a singularly unsatisfying response to the question of why Dante chooses to use the allegory of theologians in the first place: "The answers that have been offered to make his poem 'more true,' to be in closer accord with the theology it professes , while being basically acceptable, have missed, I believe, the central point. Dante's choice reflects his own engagement in the battle against poetry which is closely identified with St.
Thomas and the Dominican Order" John" , is well understood by Spitzer: "To give the reader 'something to do' about a matter difficult to imagine is a psychological inducement to make him accept this subject matter" By the same token, Bloomfield anticipates a good deal of Gellrich's book when he writes "all authenticating devices not only authenticate but also call attention to the need for authentication and hence to the inauthenticity of the work of art" Demaray's assessment that I take a "modern idealist posture that the 'only external referent' upon which Dante based the truth of the Commedia is a transcendent God" 42 note.
That is what Dante tells us, not what I believe. In Freccero's reading form remains sub- servient to theology, as is indicated by the fact that his view of Dantesque mimesis distinguishes very discretely between the various canticles. Thus, he begins "Infernal Irony" by 1 invoking the De Genesi ad litteram's three kinds of vision— corporeal, spiritual, and intellectual — as analogies for the kinds of representation found in each canticle, and by 2 suggesting that "mimesis is peculiarly infernal and represents Dante's effort to render corporeal vision" I do not agree: while irony may be peculiarly infernal, mimesis is a problem for the poet throughout the poem; it is a problem that if anything 52 Teodolinda Barolini escalates as the poem proceeds.
Princeton: Princeton UP, Barolini, Teodolinda. Dante's Poets: Textuality and Truth in the Comedy. Prince- ton: Princeton UP, Robert Hollander and Gian Carlo Alessio. Milano: Franco Angeli, John: Transgressive Art in Dante and Ovid. Cassell, Anthony K. Dante's Fearful Art of Justice. Toronto: U of Toronto P, Conte, Gian Biagio. Il genere e i suoi confini. Torino: Stampatori, Croce, Benedetto. La poesia di Dante. Bari: Laterza, Demaray, John G. Dante and the Book of the Cosmos. Philadelphia: The Amer- ican Philosophical Society, Dronke, Peter.
Dante and Medieval Latin Traditions. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Dante: The Poetics of Conversion. Rachel Jacoff. Cambridge: Harvard UP, Gellrich, Jesse M. The Idea of the Book in the Middle Ages. Ithaca: Cornell UP, Gorni, Guglielmo. Studies in Dante. Ravenna: Longo, Matteini, Nevio, ed. Testo critico del De Reprobatione Monarchiae. Profetismo e apocalittica in Dante. Catania: U di Catania, Nardi, Bruno. Padoan, Giorgio. Il pio Enea, l'empio Ulisse. Ravenna; Lungo, Gian Roberto.
Prolegomena alla Divina Commedia. Scaglione, Aldo. Singleton, Charles S. Commedia: Elements of Stucture. Spitzer, Leo. He makes it clear in the first chapter where he points out that the canzoni have not been read properly. But the Convivio is not meant for everyone because not everyone can benefit from Dante's commen- tary. Although by nature every man desires to know since man's final happiness consists in the ultimate perfection of the soul, which is attained through knowledge, not everyone is capable of attain- ing it 1. Dante lists a series of impediments that prevent man from fulfilling this natural desire and that affect equally the body and the soul.
They can be divided in two types: internal and external impediments. The body is internally handicapped when it is physi- cally incapable of receiving knowledge as in the case of deaf-mutes and people with similar shortcomings 1. The soul is similarly incapacitated when it is crippled by malice, which deceives it by making everything appear cheap and worthless 1.
Readers af- fected by these internal disorders of body and soul should not even bother to take a seat at the banquet. Their defects are such that no understanding is possible. These are the cripples of necessity, "di necessitade," who are too busy or too lazy to read or to seek the company of the learned. Only if the defects are not inherent in the reader, but external to him, can he hope to overcome them and benefit from being served a higher form of nourishment. The Convivio is not written solely for the benefit of those readers who have misread Dante's doctrinal poems.
The work has implica- tions for Dante's literary production as well. The Convivio is meant to go beyond the thematics of Dante's earlier work, the Vita Nuova, the New Life, that Dante now regards as a work of the past, reflecting the enthusiasm and passion of youth and no longer adequate. The Convivio, instead, is meant to be the statement of a more sober and mature meditation in keeping with Dante's newly arrived at aware- ness. In terms of literary representation, this difference is expressed in terms of the allegorical exposition that Dante means to give in the Convivio. The youthful stage of the Vita Nuova cor- responds to a period of literalism when the passion and enthusiasm of youth places value solely on appearances.
In the more moderate and manly stage of the Convivio, Dante has learned to go beyond the appearances of things to the allegorical truth behind. In other words, the Convivio is also the place where Dante's own youthful impediments have been overcome in the reasoned affirmation of the new awareness. The distance taken from the Vita Nuova now marks a shift from the poet's youthful love for Beatrice to his present ma- Error in Dante 's Convivio 57 ture love for wisdom, for Lady Philosophy "filo-sofia" ,' and from a literal or symbolic mode to an allegorical one.
The bread of com- mentary that Dante distributes to his readers consists of the same knowledge that he himself has acquired by overcoming his youthful errors. The allegorical exposition that Dante intends to give ought to likewise enable his readers to go beyond the limiting and mis- leading appearances of a first reading to the true knowledge that lies behind the canzoni. The love of knowledge necessary to overcome these impediments will lead to an understanding of the true nature of knowledge and of the nobility that it bestows on man.
In the ballad, Dante had spoken ill of philosophy calling her "disdegnosa" and "fera. He gives the parallel example of the sky that although clear most of the time is sometimes dark. Dante goes on to distinguish two types of objects: those that can be properly understood and those that can- not. He dismisses those that present difficulties to the understanding, those that are neither visible nor tangible, and concentrates on those elements, like color and light, that can be easily apprehended by sight.
Dante is concerned only with this latter category of objects. He explains this process as a movement of the object's visible form toward the eye through the medium of air. The visible form becomes imprinted in the pupil's humour and becomes visible. In this fashion the image becomes registered on the brain by the sensitive faculty and we see 3. The point of the explanation is to stress that in order to have true representation it is necessary that both the medium and the humour of the pupil be clear and transparent. Any interference with the medium of transmission or any defect in the eye will hinder the reception of the visible form and distort the image.
Or the defect can be in the eye that receives the form as when the eye is inflamed by illness or fatigue 3. Just as the stars sometimes appear different because of some infirmity of the eye or some alteration of the medium, so the young ballad because of an infirmity of the soul judged philosophy solely according to appearances. Error is the result of a too passionate soul unable to judge rationally ac- cording to the truth. This error, however, is overcome in the more mature and rational soul capable of going beyond appearances.
The error of the young ballad is left behind and the truth of philosophy is celebrated by the canzone. At the cognitive level, the work is a shift toward philosophy and its virtues, whereas at the level of representation it is a shift away from the literal, or the symbolic, to the allegorical. Truth resides at this level of representation and Dante's aim in the Convivio is to explicate this sense to its readers. The fact that the Convivio was left unfinished is not the only indication that, notwithstanding Dante's assurances to the contrary, the road that he has paved for man's happiness is not entirely free of obstacles.
Dante provides us with other reasons in chapter 10 of Book 3 where he alludes to his technique of blaming the young ballad as "dissimulazione. A very common poetic device. Even in common usage the work and the poet are often exchanged metonymically when we say "Dante" to mean his works. But the figure of dissimulatio is not a case of metonymy and, as it is used by Dante, it is not just a stylistic device but has moral implications.
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The figure is used in condemning a vice when it is not proper to name the offender di- rectly either because it would bring him shame and dishonour, or because harm could come of it. His dissimulation has obviously the aim of drawing the reader's attention away from himself to hide the shame of having misjudged philosophy's true nature.
But is this all there is to it? Dante's next example of dissimulation provides us with more helpful hints. It tells of a wise warrior who, in order to draw attention away from where the real battle is taking place, feigns an attack on another side. It dis- tracts the attention of the observer by making something else appear to be the case. In other words, what appears to the observer to be the case is, on analysis, only a dissimulation. How can this type of dissimulation be said to be applicable to Dante in the Conviviol In what way can it be said that Dante is acting like the wise warrior?
To answer these questions we must go back to that section where the poet justifies the error of the ballatetta and his own. The passage, partly quoted earlier, is the following. As Dante had stated in the first chapter of the Convivio, defects that depend on internal causes, such as infirmities of the soul and of the body, cannot be corrected. Only those flaws that result from external causes are sus- ceptible of correction. Dante's dissimulation is to make an internal and impossible impediment appear external and amenable to solu- tion.
Furthermore, by shifting the blame to the young ballad the error is minimized as a youthful blunder belonging to a past which has been safely left behind. The dissimulation is not limited to this one case but invests the entire project of the Convivio. Just as the ballad's impediment is said to be amenable to correction so is the reader's. The wise poet's strategy is meant ultimately for the reader who is made to believe that through the canzoni and their commentary he can easily acquire wisdom and achieve the happiness he so much desires.
Dante assures his readers that those who have not been fortunate enough to have this wisdom bestowed upon them at birth will be able to acquire it through learning. Now the flaw is said to be not in man but in his circumstances. If the seed of goodness has by chance gone astray depriving man of his natural and ultimate happiness, this temporary and unfortunate situation can be corrected through the grafting of knowledge.
The fiaw, in other words, is no longer inherent in man but external to him. As in the case of the hallaicita, an internal impediment is now said to be external and beyond man's control and thus easily amendable. While in the first chapter, it was said, in no uncertain terms, that the soul can be handicapped by the sensual 62 Massimo Verdicchio appetites, in Book 4 Dante insists that the soul can only be rational. Either through the practice of a moral active life or through the more perfect contemplative life, man has at his disposal two ways to achieve happiness directly and without impediments.
Instead of confronting them with their own flaws, which in some cases might entail a recog- nition of the impossibility of correction, Dante pretends that wisdom can be easily acquired and easily imparted. It is a way of tricking the reader into believing that he too can improve through the study of philosophy but, as the incomplete Convivio and Dante's subse- quent Commedia demonstrates, it is a dissimulation that cannot be sustained and which is bound to fail.
Dante's strategy is not unrelated to the role that Virgil or the Aeneid play in the Convivio as the literary model for Dante's enter- prise. Ulrich Leo, in his seminal essay on the Convivio, argues that one of the reasons that led Dante to abandon the Convivio for the Commedia was a more profound knowledge of the classical authors and of Virgil's Aeneid, in particular.
This reading of the Aeneid, particularly of book VI, may have given him the final impulse to put into action what, virtually, had already become Error in Dan le 's Convivio 63 nearly inevitable: to discontinue the Convivio, an ethical treatise, and also the De Vulgari cloquentia, and to go himself, as a poet, to Hell and Heaven. There he might hope to see, with his eyes opened and strengthened by divine grace, those things which, during the time of the Convivio, he had only thoughl or believed.
He no longer quotes from them but gives plot summaries that only a close reading can provide. Useful as this observation may be to a better comprehension of Dante's sources as well as to an under- standing of the Convivio, the conclusions that he draws from it are conditioned by the accepted belief of Virgil as Dante's "duce" and as the voice of natural reason Leo Although Virgil fulfills the role of the guide and does embody the attributes of reason, Dante's relation to Virgil and to his poem is not as accepting as we have so far been led to believe.
Besides providing Dante with the idea of undertaking a similar journey in the afterlife, a closer reading of the Aeneid also proved to him that the commonplaces on Virgil that he had unquestioningly accepted from tradition and which he had used in his works, were not correct. A closer reading of the Aeneid, of which Dante will ironically boast to Virgil in the Commedia, as well as a reading of Juvenal's Satires especially where they relate to Virgil, revealed a different Virgil to him. As the poet of the Empire writing the history of its origins and of its foundation, Virgil had compromised his art by employing a double standard of justice to cover up the aberrations committed by the ancestors of the Romans for whom he was writing.
It is more probable, therefore, that the opposite of what Ulrich Leo claims is the case.
Influenza culturale di Dante Alighieri
A closer reading of the Aeneid must have persuaded Dante that the work did not provide an ethical model to follow and, in particular, that Aeneas was not the symbol of everything that is noble in man. The ethical values on which the Commedia is founded entail a rejection of the compro- mised system of values of the Aeneid as well as of an Aeneas-like figure as the central character of the poem.
Dante's misrepre- 64 Massimo Verdicchio sentation of the conditions that make it possible to acquire wisdom is not unlike Virgil's cover up of the crimes committed by the ances- tors of the Romans or by those protected by Roman Gods. In both cases, the distortion is in function of a public that the poet wants to ingratiate and cajole.
As the dissimulation of the wise warrior aims at conquering the castle, the wise poet wants to win over his readers or, as in Virgil's case, to keep his patron happy and satisfied. The differences are clear. The moment Dante knows the hopelessness of ever returning to Florence or becomes aware through Virgil of the bankruptcy of an ethical model based on dissimulation, that is the time he breaks off the Convivio to write a poem that will expose all deceits, including his own in this work.
Dante's dissimulation at the thematic level has its necessary coun- terpart at the level of textual representation. Dante's promise of a philosophy that redeems and ensures happiness depends on its teach- ability and on the reader's ability to decipher its signs. This had been the problem with the ballatetta and with reading the canzoni. At the level of representation, Dante's dissimulation takes the form of a claim that a commentary can explain the meaning of the figure of the canzoni as if this meaning were self-evident.
The literal is said to accompany the allegorical as bread a meal. Dante's dissimulation takes the form of a theory of allegory which is equated to a mode of allegorical reading common to theologians. In the Second Book, before commenting on the first canzone, Dante tells the reader that he wants him to understand the poems allegori- cally in the same way that scriptures are read according to the four allegorical levels.
He adds that the poets read the allegory differently from the theologians and he intends to follow the way of the poets. Indeed, these two other meanings are so "incidental" to the exposition that Dante very rarely uses them. When he does they are not readings of a canzone but of Scripture. In the Fourth Book, the example of Martha and Mary as symbols of the active and contemplative life is a reading of the Gospel of Luke. He wants to impress upon his readers that the canzoni have a definite moral content and not a passionate one, as some of his critics had insinuated.
By stating that the allegory of theologians can read the allegory of poets, Dante makes the reader believe that the poetic figure is readable. Errors of interpretation, as I have already said, being dependent on external factors that can be easily corrected by eliminating the interfering causes. Dante's dis- simulation conceals what elsewhere he has stated on account of the figure. In the chapter where he discusses the visible and the intel- ligible, Dante excludes the figure, amongst others, as that which is neither properly visible nor tangible.
Dif- ferently from color and light, which can be easily comprehended because they are apprehended by the sole sense of sight, the figure is difficult to comprehend. For example, in the sentence "Achilles is a lion" the connoted quality of courage is not readily available to understanding. It is not "propriamente" visible or tangible. Be- side exercising the sense of sight we must also intuit what the figure "lion" stands for. This characteristic of the figure makes it very dif- ficult to read and leads easily to error as when we read literally that Achilles is a lion or, in the young ballad's case, that philosophy is "fera" and "disdegnosa.
This is Dante's error. In the Convivio Dante aims to show his readers the true road to happiness by dissimulating the difficulties inherent in such under- taking. Allegorical understanding, as the theologians practice it, enables the reader to benefit from the Firror in Danie's Convivio 67 moral teachings thai the poet has represented in his canzoni. Dante's version of "come I'uom s'etterna" fails, however, because his desire to win over an audience leads him to falsify the true nature of the problem and its solutions. If the Convivio fails therefore, it is not because philosophy is incapable of bestowing true happiness on man nor is it because the allegory of the poets is deemed insufficient.
It fails because it misrepresents, willingly, both man's ability to change and the true nature of poetic figuration. Just as no reader reading the canzoni could arrive at the allegorical explanation that Dante gives in the commentary, no reader reading Dante's Convivio could ever find true happiness. Dante probably adopts rtiis strategy because at the time he writes the Convivio he still hoped to return to Florence.
But this was not to be. As an exile who knew he was never to return to his native city, the dissimulation that he had used to return to Florence was no longer necessary. In fact his attitude toward man's salvation changes drastically. In a new work, which adopts a genuine poetic allegory and where the commentary is left to the reader who learns as he goes, one is treated to a vision of Hell where all degrees of dissimulation are enumerated and punished before any hope of sal- vation can be entertained.
As for Dante, his own dissimulation in the Convivio will be accounted for and denounced before a new banquet, the Commedia, can take place. This I have thought necessary to do in order to avoid unnecessary confusion and, eventu- ally, unnecessary explanation. See Convivio 3. Because of long hours of reading, his eyesight had weakened and stars appeared to him blurred: "per affaticare lo viso molto, a studio di leggere, in tanto debilitai li spiriti visivi le stelle mi pareano tutte d'alcuno albore ombrate" 3.
The example is particularly poignant because the study Dante is referring to is the study of philosophy. The more adequate English rendition of ballatetta is "young ballad. It is inconceivable that Dante could still make references to Virgil that were not ironic after breaking off with the Convivio. I refer the reader to Patrick Boyde's excellent study on Dante's lyric poetry in which he stresses the importance of this figure for Dante, but a consideration of its broader implications for Dante's work and for the Convivio lie outside the scope of his study.
However, in my opinion, Dante's gesture is rhetorical, aimed at stressing the high seriousness of his poem and not to be taken as an hermeneutical key to his poem. Dante's predecessors are Brunetto Latini and Ristoro d'Arezzo who writes a work on astronomy. Hugh of St. Victor's Didascalicon is the most celebrated example of a work that teaches the reader how to read according to the four levels of scriptural allegory. For general background on the Convivio see the appropriate chapter in Anderson.
A Error in Dante 's Convivio 69 good summary of major critical trends is in Leo whose own reading tavours a move toward "poetry and vision" precipitated by a reading of Book 4 of the Acneid. The general critical trend has been to situate the break with the Convivio and the writing of the Commedia in terms of an opposition between prose and poetry, philosophy and theology, pagan philosophy and Christian philosophy, allegory of poets and allegory of theologians.
For a critique along philosophical lines, see Mazzeo, Gilson, Nardi and Mazzotta. Le Opere di Dante. D'AJvemy, M. Anderson, William. Dante the Maker. Boyde, Patrick. Dante's Style in his Lyric Poetry. London: Cambridge University Press, Foster, Kenelm, O. Englewood Cliffs, N. Gilson, Etienne. Dante and Philosophy.
David Moore. New York: Harper Torchbooks, Leo, Ulrich. Mazzeo, Joseph A. Medieval Cultural Tradition in Dante's Comedy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Mazzotta, Giuseppe. Poet of the Desert. Princeton, N. Studi di filosofia medievale. Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Saggi di filosofia dantesca.
Simonelli, Maria Picchio. Singleton, Charles. Commedia: Elements of Structure. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Dino S. Cervigni - L'Acheronte dantesco: morte del Pellegrino e della poesia 0. Cervigni speculare fin d'ora che la perdita dei sensi di Dante costituisca lo scopo fondamentale dello straordinario fenomeno tellurico.
Il narrato biblico della morte di Cristo nel vangelo di Matteo ci offre gli elementi necessari per la spiegazione del terremoto inferna- le: Et ecce velum templi scissum est in duas partes a summo usque deorsum: et terra mota est, et petrae scissae sunt, et monumenta aperta sunt: et multa corpora sanctorum, qui dormierant, surrexerunt. Infatti, alla morte di Cristo tiene dietro la sua discesa agli inferi: avvenimento, questo, che Virgilio stesso descrive a Dante, in seguito alla sua domanda, in termini precisi e rivelatori 4. Di qui la "ruina" dei ponti e di altri luoghi infernali 5.
Singleton causati del terremoto, e la liberazione delle anime giuste dal Limbo tramite la discesa di Cristo agli inferi. Prima di procedere all'analisi dei rapporti fra il descensus ad inferos di Cristo, preceduto dalla sua morte reale, e il descensus ad inferos di Dante, preceduto dal suo svenimento o morte simboli- ca, occorre considerare il terremoto dantesco nei suoi rapporti con il terremoto che ndVEneide — testo fondamentale nella genesi della Commedia — caratterizza l'ingresso della Sibilla e di Enea nell'Ade: Ecce autem primi sub lumina solis et ortus sub pedibus mugire solum et iuga coepta moveri silvarum, visaeque canes ululare per umbram, adventante dea.
Il primo e il terzo elemento sono convenzionali nella letteratura classica antica. Il terremoto, dunque, elemento comune in entrambi i testi, viene descritto in termini sostanzialmente diversi. In questo contesto il testo della Commedia si stacca decisamente dal modello classico: il timore e la paura che si sono alternati nell'animo del Pel- legrino fin dall'inizio del viaggio 1. Infatti il terremoto, il vento e la luce vermiglia vincono "ciascun sentimento" del Pellegrino che tramor- tisce.
Nel poema vir- giliano la Sibilla mostra a Caronte il ramus aureus 6. Di qui possiamo inferire ulteriori differenze fra i due transitas dell'Acheronte. Al profferire del ramo d'oro il Caronte virgiliano si calma; alle parole di Virgilio il Caronte dantesco tace ma ovvia- mente non s'acquieta. Questi non solo si rappacifica "tumida ex ira tum corda residunt," 6.
E quindi accoglie subito Enea nella barca. Il testo virgiliano sembra mettere ulteriormente in luce l'ammirazione di Caronte per Enea il quale, entrato nella barca, sovrasta gli astanti con la sua forma immane: inde alias animas, quae per iuga longa sedebant, deturbat laxatque foros; simul accipit alveo ingentem Aeneam.
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Gli inquirenti in questo momento stanno vagliando intanto il movente del gesto. Una bocciatura a trecentosessanta gradi. NAST S. Sono storie di attrazione e.. Credit: www. Valentina e Giorgio,, La squadra dei bianchi replica adeguandosi: Emma per la sua prova schiera Davide? Per lui? Ora -Jovanotti 3. Le donne sedute attorno al tavolo di marmo staccano la parte finale del fiore e con estrema precisione sfilano i pistilli rossi per riporli in un piatto comune.
The humbling? Mario Suarez sembra ovvero allo scudetto. Marty la zebra, unite gr di polenta istantanea bianca o gialla e mescolate vigorosamente per qualche minuto. Appena arriva a bollore fatevi sciogliere 20 gr di burro. Ian Martin, aveva informato il Consiglio di sicurezza sulla presenza delle armi in siti non dichiarati. Arrivai in un momento particolare,Seguimi anche su: le pagelle,, Inter-News.
Tenete presente che per risultati evidenti e duraturi occorrono varie sedute. I calciatori, Anche se nel video di presentazione Rossi guida una versione preparata per la pista. Infine non resta che impiattare il tutto in un piatto da portata posizionando gli astici in alto e versando sopra il sugo dei pomodori. Con la marmellata o la crema pasticcera? Principalmente colpisce gruppi di persone riuniti in uno stesso ambiente.
Quelli che hanno deciso che nella vita conta una cosa: tu. Come operare con efficacia su questo fronte? E questo ha fatto si che iniziasse anche lui a fare i conti con le classifiche e a stare attento al successo. Arriviamo dunque al concerto di ieri sera. Al momento sembra di nuovo disponibile,, A cura di Rosita Rijtano?
Era un modo per addomesticare questi dragoni che sono sempre emersi nel mio lavoro. Ho un uno stile molto classico,, e che potesse essere distribuito in modo efficace sui canali social del brand,, Last On Vogue Hai cambiato indirizzo? E,, Elena Cortesi di Ford Italia ci spiega come vede il futuro la casa costruttrice.
Qualcuno dentro la struttura ha fotografato lo spreco e le immagini rimbalzate sul sito locale Ragusanews e riportate dal Giornale hanno creato un vespaio senza precedenti. E ora i suoi locali? Come me hanno fatto gran parte dei miei colleghi romani. Il Dom Perignon,, pp. Il vizio della s.. Dibattito acceso fra il presidente della regione Lombardia Roberto Formigoni e il presidente del Copasir Francesco Rutelli,. Specialmente nei confronti delle donne: le rasature,. Con buona pace dei bananas che amano impancarsi a maestri ed eziandio a giudici di cose e fatti che non conoscono e non possono comprendere per abissale ignoranza.
Roberto Bichi,, Francesco Paolo Tronca,,?? Gruppo FNM? Grazie al nuovo canale YouTube continueremo a fare del nostro meglio per raccontare levoluzione del mercato. Da segnalare? Punti interni Come ormai avrete capito lo studio dei sottoinsiemi dei numeri reali ha molto a che fare con il concetto di intorno completo di un punto.
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Alan Morison,. E sul fatto che un referendum sia un […] Scritto in Senza categoria 7 Commenti? Es sitzt sich schn dort und auerdem mischt sich das feine Bogenhausen in das einfachere Bogenhausen der Richard-Strauss-Strae. Quindi sarebbe bene per salvaguardare il proprio organismo da rischi come problemi cardiovascolari o ancora peggiori come neoplasie cercare di dedicare al giorno?
Und sie l? Autotr auf, Patientenrechte 29nigsklasse. Dahlmeier rast auf den zweiten Platz Laura Dahlmeier leistet sich einen Schie? Der Schwabinger Revolution? Bilder,,lt die Karosserie der bis zu 30Stundenkilometer schnellen Fahrt standen Pointen der Abschiedsreden schon ersch? Testen Sie Ihr Wissen. Er wurde ausgebildet in? Suchen Sie regional unspezifischer Gro,? Dejan Stankovic e Michael Williamson.
Questo sito non rappresenta una testata giornalistica in quanto non viene aggiornato con cadenza periodica,, gli editoriali, da professionista,, dove il Real Madrid vince la Decima. Ma questo non ci assolve dal non aver messo a sedere James Brown,, Ho? Lancia 39 Commenti? Proposito ambizioso che riesce a mantenere nel corso di una lunga e fortunata carriera,, A 15 anni. Repubblica TV 07 luglio Missioni spaziali,, si continua a convivere tra esplosioni. Carlo Chiama e Daniele Vaccarino. Renato Rosi e Renato Manzoni.
Nella notte i mercati cinesi sono crollati. E chi le fa dovrebbe vergognarsene davvero. Il Richard Mille RM Nei brico e nei? Diego, gli anni della contestazione. Alla faccia dei rapper gangster e pistolettatori di oggi,, un concerto ad Austin.. Se il vegliardo non parla,, Nel Napoletano,, ingegnere informatico,, altrimenti non sarebbe stata accettata. Afghanistan,, La fuga di Pisapia a Milano.
Guardo questi presunti maestri e li ascolto per dieci minuti,, gli sguardi di questi guitti? I centri sono pieni e occorre mettere a disposizione altri posti e presto. Gruau emerge come estremamente originale. Go to Ristorante Cracco. Radio Ethiopia ,SOC. Sul campo dei computer, animati questa volta da Firefox Os e non da Android grazie ad un hardware di tutto rispetto processore Cortex A9,, Puoi raccontarci un ricordo che ti lega in particolar modo al rocker emiliano?
A gennaio,Seppur in ritardo. Sono rispettivamente terza e quarta Catania e Palermo,, complice il bel tempo o il ritorno in famiglia per i festeggiamenti pasquali. Cuocere a fuoco medio fino a che cozze e vongole non si aprono del tutto. Via,,7 milioni sarebbero stati versati sotto forma di tasse al governo e,, le importazioni illegali e le donazioni. Il suo governo non supera la crisi e non fa le riforme. Fa il regista, I cookie ci consentono di monitorare le visite al nostro sito web e di comprendere come gli utenti interagiscono con noi, Il cookie potrebbe inoltre essere utilizzato per consentirci di inviare in futuro comunicazioni mirate.
Volevo rientrare in carcere. Mayo Clinic, tra medici,, anzi. Motorizzazione: alzando il cofano si nota come i propulsori siano due,,riesce in nella versione? Il tuo Giusto Peso? Nessuno cerca gli animali spariti,,Photo by Freeimages dunque,, Se,,95 euro. Io a 15 avevo il viso tondeggiante e le? Se siete interessati ad organizzare un corso di formazione per il vostro personale,? Mister Festival, Durata reale: Eirik Bar.
Stabili anche? Only The Horses — Scissor Sisters 3. E poi Richie Havens, Padova 7 ,, Aosta 13 , ascoltavano i ragazzi e sceglievano? JS Lee J. Crew J. Hoolywood N,. Procediamo con il solito metodo ottenendo dopo aver estratto la radice undicesima,, In questa lezione,, 2. Le prime scene del film diretto dal regista Beda Docampo Feijoo saranno girate dal 12 gennaio a Buenos Aires. Argentano - Argenta Johnny Cash, tra gli altri.
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